Salmon P. Chase

By: Dumebi Onogwu

Texas V. White

when?argued before the United States Supreme Court in 1869.

where? argued in the supreme court. involved Texas

what happened? Texas (and the rest of the Confederacy) never left the Union during the Civil War, because a state cannot unilaterally secede from the United States.

Treasury bond sales by Texas during the war were invalid, and the bonds were therefore still owned by the post-war state.

outcome? Chase ruled that the approval of any one of the three governors on the original bill submitted to the court was sufficient to authorize the action.

Veazie Bank V. Fenno

when? Argued October 18, 1869. Decided December 13, 1869

Where? aged in the supreme court. involved maine circuit court.

what happened? In 1866, Congress enacted a statute that increased a 1 percent tax on state bank notes to a rate of 10 percent. The Veazie Bank of Maine refused to pay the increased tax, and a case ensued between the bank and Fenno, a collector of internal revenue. The bank contended that the 10-percent levy was excessive and threatened it with extinction. Congress, the bank argued, could not use its taxing power to destroy the bank. Such an action was an unconstitutional use of Congress's power to tax because the levy was a direct tax forbidden by the Constitution and because the levy was a tax on a state agency, as Veazie Bank had been chartered by the State of Maine.

outcome? In a 5–2 opinion, Chief Justice Chase held that this use of Congress's taxing power was authorized.

Hepburn v. Griswold

when? 1870

where? argued in the supreme court

what happened? In 1860, Susan P. Hepburn executed a promissory note in which she expressly promised to repay a loan of one thousand dollars. When the note came due in 1862, Hepburn tendered to Henry A. Griswold, the owner of the note, United States governmental notes totaling the amount of the debt. Griswold refused the tender and sued Hepburn for his money.

Outcome? the Court ruled by a four-to-three majority that Congress lacked the power to make the notes legal tender.

changes? overruled by legal tender cases

Big image

mississippi v. Johnson

what happened? In 1867, Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts. Although President Andrew Johnson vetoed the Acts, Congress overrode the veto. In an attempt to delay or prevent Reconstruction, the state of Mississippi appealed directly to the Supreme Court. Mississippi asked the Court for an injunction preventing the President from enforcing the Acts on the ground that they were unconstitutional.

when? argued: april 12, 1867. decided: april 15, 1867

where? argued in the supreme court. involved mississippi

outcome? In a unanimous decision, the Court held that it had "no jurisdiction of a bill to enjoin the President in the performance of his official duties...." The Court held that the duties of the President as required by the Reconstruction Acts were "in no sense ministerial," and that a judicial attempt to interfere with the performance of such duties would be "an absurd and excessive extravagance." The Court noted that if the President chose to ignore the injunction, the judiciary would be unable to enforce the order.

Pervear v. Massachusetts

Background? A Massachusetts business owner was convicted and sentenced to the payment of a large fine and to three months of hard labor for failing to have a state license for his liquor store. He tried to invoke the "cruel and unusual punishment" clause of the Eighth Amendment

what happened?this was a case brought before the supreme court in 1866 over the issue of prisoners' rights. The court ruled that prisoners have no constitutional rights, not even Eighth Amendment. rights. This was the first case stating the "hands off" policy that allowed states to run their prisons without federal interference. The application of the Bill of Rights to state action did not come until later and then only in part.

when? 1866

where? argued in supreme court. involved Massachusetts

outcome? The Supreme Court ruled that the constitution did not apply to state cases but only to federal issues.Pervear did not take the case further.

changes? this was overruled by Jones v. Cunningham

Crandall v. Nevada

what happened? In 1865, the Nevada legislature enacted a law that levied a one-dollar tax on any person leaving the state by railroad, stage coach, or other any mode of transportation engaged in transporting passengers for hire. For the purpose of collecting the tax, the law required that the persons engaged in such business file a report every month, under oath, documenting the number of passengers they transported. The businesses were to make the payment of the tax to the sheriff or other proper officer.

Mr. Crandall, an agent of a stage company engaged in carrying passengers through the state of Nevada, was arrested for refusing to report the number of passengers that had been transported by his company and for refusing to pay the tax of one dollar imposed on each passenger. Crandall maintained that the Nevada statute under which he was prosecuted was unconstitutional, but the lower courts rejected that claim.

when? 1868

where? argued in the supreme court. involved Nevada

outcome? The majority opinion held that the Nevada tax was unconstitutional.

significance? The court's ruling unequivocally denies a state the ability to inhibit people from leaving that state by taxing them.

Georgia v. Stanton

what happened? The state of Georgia brought suit against the Secretary of War and two of his generals in an effort to prevent the enforcement of the Reconstruction Acts following the Civil War. The case arose under the Court's original jurisdiction.

when? 1867

where? argued in the supreme court. involved georgia

outcome? Nelson maintained that this was a "political" question and thus out-of-bounds for judicial inquiry. Georgia sought rights of a political character, not rights of persons or property. Thus the issue was outside the domain of a law or equity court.

Work Cited