Salmon P. Chase
By: Dumebi Onogwu
Texas V. White
where? argued in the supreme court. involved Texas
what happened? Texas (and the rest of the Confederacy) never left the Union during the Civil War, because a state cannot unilaterally secede from the United States.Treasury bond sales by Texas during the war were invalid, and the bonds were therefore still owned by the post-war state.
outcome? Chase ruled that the approval of any one of the three governors on the original bill submitted to the court was sufficient to authorize the action.
Veazie Bank V. Fenno
Where? aged in the supreme court. involved maine circuit court.
what happened? In 1866, Congress enacted a statute that increased a 1 percent tax on state bank notes to a rate of 10 percent. The Veazie Bank of Maine refused to pay the increased tax, and a case ensued between the bank and Fenno, a collector of internal revenue. The bank contended that the 10-percent levy was excessive and threatened it with extinction. Congress, the bank argued, could not use its taxing power to destroy the bank. Such an action was an unconstitutional use of Congress's power to tax because the levy was a direct tax forbidden by the Constitution and because the levy was a tax on a state agency, as Veazie Bank had been chartered by the State of Maine.
outcome? In a 5–2 opinion, Chief Justice Chase held that this use of Congress's taxing power was authorized.
Hepburn v. Griswold
where? argued in the supreme court
what happened? In 1860, Susan P. Hepburn executed a promissory note in which she expressly promised to repay a loan of one thousand dollars. When the note came due in 1862, Hepburn tendered to Henry A. Griswold, the owner of the note, United States governmental notes totaling the amount of the debt. Griswold refused the tender and sued Hepburn for his money.
Outcome? the Court ruled by a four-to-three majority that Congress lacked the power to make the notes legal tender.
changes? overruled by legal tender cases
mississippi v. Johnson
when? argued: april 12, 1867. decided: april 15, 1867
where? argued in the supreme court. involved mississippi
outcome? In a unanimous decision, the Court held that it had "no jurisdiction of a bill to enjoin the President in the performance of his official duties...." The Court held that the duties of the President as required by the Reconstruction Acts were "in no sense ministerial," and that a judicial attempt to interfere with the performance of such duties would be "an absurd and excessive extravagance." The Court noted that if the President chose to ignore the injunction, the judiciary would be unable to enforce the order.
Pervear v. Massachusetts
Background? A Massachusetts business owner was convicted and sentenced to the payment of a large fine and to three months of hard labor for failing to have a state license for his liquor store. He tried to invoke the "cruel and unusual punishment" clause of the Eighth Amendment
what happened?this was a case brought before the supreme court in 1866 over the issue of prisoners' rights. The court ruled that prisoners have no constitutional rights, not even Eighth Amendment. rights. This was the first case stating the "hands off" policy that allowed states to run their prisons without federal interference. The application of the Bill of Rights to state action did not come until later and then only in part.
where? argued in supreme court. involved Massachusetts
outcome? The Supreme Court ruled that the constitution did not apply to state cases but only to federal issues.Pervear did not take the case further.
changes? this was overruled by Jones v. Cunningham
Crandall v. Nevada
Mr. Crandall, an agent of a stage company engaged in carrying passengers through the state of Nevada, was arrested for refusing to report the number of passengers that had been transported by his company and for refusing to pay the tax of one dollar imposed on each passenger. Crandall maintained that the Nevada statute under which he was prosecuted was unconstitutional, but the lower courts rejected that claim.
where? argued in the supreme court. involved Nevada
outcome? The majority opinion held that the Nevada tax was unconstitutional.
significance? The court's ruling unequivocally denies a state the ability to inhibit people from leaving that state by taxing them.
Georgia v. Stanton
where? argued in the supreme court. involved georgia
outcome? Nelson maintained that this was a "political" question and thus out-of-bounds for judicial inquiry. Georgia sought rights of a political character, not rights of persons or property. Thus the issue was outside the domain of a law or equity court.
- "Mississippi v. Johnson." Oyez. Chicago-Kent College of Law at Illinois Tech, n.d. Nov 16, 2015. <https://www.oyez.org/cases/1850-1900/71us475>
- Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.
- "Crandall v. Nevada." - GO492. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2015.