Traumatic Brain Injury

By: Sammi Seidman

What is TBI?

TBI is an extremely complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and different disabilities. TBI possibly leads to temporary or permanent impairement of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial abilities. TBI can impact an individuals ability to learn as well as an altered state of consciousness.

Major Characteristics of TBI

There are many different characterstics of people dealing with TBI. Some symptoms may be worse for other individuals, depending on the severity of the injury. Some characteristics include:

  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Sleeping difficulties
  • Dizziness
  • Mood changes and mood swings
  • Visual Disturbance
  • Feelings of Depression
  • Poor attention and concentration
  • seizures

Accurate Prevalence Rate

In the United States, about 1.7 million cases of TBI occur yearly. Worldwide about 54-60 million cases of TBI occur yearly.

Interference with Learning

Physical Impairments- Relating to body
  • Impaired motor skills
  • Poor body coordination
  • Paralysis

Behavioral Impairments- Relates to behavior

  • Possible problems socializing
  • Impulsivity
  • Inability to engage in activity
Cognitive Impairments- Relates to knowledge
  • Impaired problem solving and decision making
  • Poor organization and planning
  • Decreased motor skills
  • Slowed information processing

A major characteristic that interferes with learning is how individuals who suffer from TBI may have a difficult time processing information. It may be harder for students to get assignments done on time, and finish assignments within the classroom setting in a short period of time.

Living with TBI

TBI - Concussions: Josh's Story

Useful Accommodations for the Classroom

When a teacher is telling there students to do something, they should use a direct statement to make sure it is extremely clear and easy to understand what they need to do, and how they need to do it.

A student who is suffering from TBI should also get preferential seating, and sit close to the front so they can continue to pay attention and be close to the board and the teacher.

Another accommodation which could be extremely helpful in the classroom would be avoiding time limits on tests as well as assignments. People who suffer from TBI may take longer to process certain things and what they need to do, so breaking up larger tasks into smaller ones will also be extremely helpful in the classroom.

Home Accommodations for Individuals with TBI

Most accommodations that are in the classroom are helpful in the home as well. Another accommodation which can be extremely helpful is minimizing TV watching, and computer time. In other words, make sure the child is not on the computer or watching TV too long. Also just like in the classroom, it is important to keep the child in small group activities, rather than big group events, because if they are suffering from anxiety, or depression it could make things for the individual a lot worse than it needs to be. So, keeping your child in small group settings is much better for them, rather than places where there are many people. It's also extremely important for individuals with TBI to have a routine, its very useful for everyone to have a schedule, but especially people who suffer from TBI. When someone suffers from TBI they may have memory loss, so having a steady routine and schedule can be extremely beneficial. Parents should make up a schedule for their child and make sure the child learns the schedule and also checks off things on the check list, so they know exactly what they have to do and when.
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An App to Help Individuals with TBI

There are many apps that can and would be used for individuals who suffer from TBI. An app that would be extremely helpful would be "Evernote". "Evernote" helps individuals stay organized, you can write notes, create to do lists, and can record voice reminders.

Helpful for Parents Whose Child Has TBI

This website helps parents learn different ways to help their child adjust to living with TBI. It gives advice on how to help one's child with the recovering process, understanding what happened, what you can do at home for the child, and many other useful information on how to help the child dealing with TBI.

Look Out For These Symtoms and Actions of Children

This website provides different symptoms a child may have when dealing with TBI, and when one should go to a doctor. It also goes into detail the causes of TBI and the different impairments that can effect an individual.

Works Cited

Cognitive Problems after Traumatic Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved April 27, 2015, from

Educating Students With Traumatic Brain Injury. (2008, April 1). Retrieved April 25, 2015,


Facts About Traumatic Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved April 22, 2015, from

Kreutzer, J., & Hsu, N. (n.d.). Accommodations Guide for Students with Brain Injury.

Retrieved April 21, 2015, from


Life-Changing Mobile Apps for People with Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved April 26, 2015, from


Traumatic brain injury. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2015, from


Traumatic Brain Injury. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2015, from

Schoenbrodt, L. (n.d.). Children with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Parents' Guide. Retrieved

April 28, 2015, from