1960's Cold War

By: Whitley Petonke

1960 Home

Released in 1960 To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. This book had received many awards soon after being published. TKMB is about 3 little kids living in the south and some of things they experience through their childhood. But the other main topic of the story is the father of the kids is a lawyer who is trying to help a black man through an unfair trial. Due to this time in history him and his family are ridiculed.
Cassius Clay wins gold at the 1960 Olympics. Growing up he was accused of stealing a bike and because of this accusation a police officer was able to encounter him, and he was the one who told him to start boxing. Cassius had won many state and national titles, so when the Olympic trials came around he was selected to go to Rome for the games. He was able to win the finals and take home the gold medal. This was a huge step for his boxing career.
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First Televised Presidential Debate

This was the first presidential debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. Comparing the two candidates Kennedy seemed to be more put together and confident than Nixon. Due to this Kennedy won most of the votes from televised viewers. But from those who listened in from the radio people thought that Nixon's answers were better. But after 4 debates Kennedy had easily won the presidential election.

Abroad 1960

U-2 plane shot down over Soviet Union

In May of 1960 an American spy plane was shot down by the Soviets, and the pilot Francis Powers was taken. President Eisenhower did confess to have spent a few years of spying on the Soviets military. Due to this Francis was sentenced to 10 years in prison, luckily he only served about 2 years. Because of the U-2 incident it just caused more tension between the Soviets and the U.S.
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Valdivia Earthquake/Tsunami

This earthquake took place on May 22, 1960, and goes in the record for one of the largest earthquakes. Over 1,000 people were killed, about 3,000 injured, and millions left without homes or shelter. The quake was so large there was an after shock in areas like California. And just a day apart a tsunami had gone through the area of Chile as well. Waves had reached heights of 18 feet, and killed or injured thousands of people. All within a day many people had lost everything they had.
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Inejiro Asanuma Assassination

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The assassination occurred on October 12, 1960 and was recorded. He was speaking during a political debate when Otoya Yamaguchi(age 17) ran onto the stage and put a sword through his ribs, killing him. Millions of viewers had seen this video and were mortified. Otoya was arrested on the scene. But before being sentenced to anything he committed suicide.

1961 Home

John F. Kennedy becomes president on January 20, 1961. He was the youngest elected president of age 43. Kennedy won a lot of support because two of his main goals was to end poverty and to end the spread of communism which at the time scared many of the Americans. He had a big role with handling tensions turing the cold war. He was also able to get the federal government to support the on going civil rights movement. Today President Kennedy is known as one of the "best-loved presidents in America's history".

33rd Academy Awards

Took place on April 17, 1961 in Santa Monica. First academy awards ceremony to be shown on ABC and since then that's where the ceremony is shown. The host was Bob Hope who was a well known actor and comedian. This ceremony marked the last time a black and white movie was given the award of "Best Picture". Some very known movies of today were given awards at this ceremony.

Eddie Murphy Birth

Eddie was born on April 3, 1961 and has become a very famous comedian and actor. Growing up Eddie was able to do many impressions which became a great skill for his future stand up comedy. He had to work really hard to eventually get to the top, he was even declined for a part of Saturday Night Live 6 times before he was just a slide in spot. He got a lot of publicity and eventually made it into the movie business. Today Eddie Murphy is a very well known actor and has had a lot of success.
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1961 Abroad

Building of the Berlin Wall

After World War 2 had ended eastern part of the country went to the Soviets and western to the US, Great Britain, and France. The main reason for the Soviets building the wall was to stop people from going into and out of eastern part. The wall was made out of barbed wire and concrete and many people were sadly killed trying to get over the wall. The soviets even had soldiers there to shoot anyone who was trying to escape. After about 20 years thousands of people came with hammers and other things to help destroy the wall, finally they had the wall removed.

First Man in Space

On April 12, 1961 marked the day the first man had made it to space. The astronauts name was Yuri Gagarin and he was from Russia. He was given much publicity for his amazing accomplishment. He was able to make a full orbit around the earth. This was a very big deal because there had been a space race to see who could reach space first.

Hurricane Hattie

In 1961 Hurricane Hattie struck killing hundreds and leaving thousands homeless. The city of Belize was almost half way destroyed by this strong storm. The hurricane was Category 4 and had winds up to 140 mph. Due to poor weather predictions the warning of the hurricane only got to some people. It was a devastating natural disaster but luckily they were able to rebuild their city.
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1962 Home

Marilyn Monroe's Death

On August 5, 1962 Marilyn Monroe is found dead in her home. Marilyn was an icon during her time and was well known for her looks and her openness of her sexuality. On the night of her death the police were able to find that Marilyn had overdosed on prescription pills for her depression. The main thought of the reason for her death was an attempt at suicide. But some had questioned her death due to her love affairs meaning those she had affairs with might have killed her, possibly worrying that she would release information about her relationships.

James Meredith 1962

James Meredith was the first African American to be accepted to the University of Mississippi. When he first applied he was accepted but once the board found out his race they declined his application. Meredith decided to take this decision to trial, and it ended up going all of the way to the Supreme Court, where they ruled in his favor. On September 20, 1962 was the day when Meredith finally arrived at the University. Meredith did get a lot of discrimination while working his way to acceptance but was able to conquer all of those and graduate.

Project Mercury 'Friendship 7'

The goal of this mission was to get a man into space and have them orbit the Earth. On February 20, 1962 John Glenn became the first American to orbit Earth. Not only did he go around once, but he did three times. On his journey back home he landed safely into the Atlantic Ocean, him and the space craft were soon retrieved. This mission was a big step to having the first man on the moon.

Abroad 1962

Cuban Missile Crisis

On October 14, 1962 the U.S. finds missiles that are in Cuba directly pointed at the United States. The Soviets had placed their missiles in Cuba just as the U.S did in Turkey. On October 24 the Soviet ships were heading towards Cuba when they found that the U.S. had created a blockade, the Soviets knew that if they tried to get through it could spark a nuclear war. A deal finally ended the stand-off, saying the Soviets would remove the missiles if the U.S didn't try to invade Cuba again.
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Nevado Huascarán Avalanche

Was an avalanche that killed over 4000 people. On January 10,1962 the ice off of Andes Mountains started to break and come down onto the surrounding towns. Avalanches never really took place in this area, but seemed to be traveling very quickly. 2 towns were completely destroyed when they were completely buried by 40 feet of snow. The avalanche ended in a river but due to all of the snow it caused major flooding in surrounding towns.

Adolf Eichmann Hanged

Adolf Eichmann was a Nazi-leader who was very responsible for the "Final Solution" of the Jews. Eichmann was the man to suggest that the Jews should be placed in the ghettos. At the end of WWII Eichmann was captured by the U.S. Army but didn't give them his real name, he eventually escaped and went to other countries lying about his identity. A team from the secret service did find Eichmann and brought him back to Israel for his trial. On May 31, 1962 Eichmann was hanged.

1963 Home

JFK Assassination

On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy is assassinated. During a parade Kennedy was shot 2 times by killer Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was sent to the Police Basement for a more secure hold, but was shot being traveled between locations. Lee Harvey was killed by Jack Ruby who was then charged for first-degree murder. Because of Kennedy's death the whole country mourned. Today Kennedy is known as one of the most favored presidents.

"I have a Dream"

The very well known speech given by Martin Luther King Junior. King was leader during the Civil Rights movement and spoke out against racism and segregation. In his speech he spoke words from the Declaration of Independence, the Emancipation Proclamation, and more. King was able to teach the crowd about the problems going on with racism, he was able to show his opinions in a very educated way. King was able to show all of the things "America had promised" but had not been fulfilled like freedom of speech, all men should be treated equal, and even end of slavery. Martin Luther King will always be remembered for having a dream and changing lives with it.
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Warren Commission

On November 29, 1963 the Warren Commission was created by new president Lyndon Johnson. It was an investigation regarding former president Kennedy's assassination. The whole basis behind the investigation was to see if Lee Harvey Oswald (killer) was alone or was behind a bigger scheme of something. The one big problem during the investigation was trying to figure out Oswald's motive for killing Kennedy, and that seemed near impossible since he was killed soon after being arrested. The Commission wasn't able to find any real evidence that someone else was involved in the killing of president Kennedy but it is still questioned.

1963 Abroad

Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

On August 5, 1963 the treaty was signed by the US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain. This treaty said that there wouldn't be any more nuclear test or explosions. This treaty eased some of the tension between the Soviets and US because of the Cuban Missile Crisis. The treaty helped control the use of nuclear weapons. Eventually 180 countries signed the treaty as well.

Huế chemical attacks

On June 23, 1963 at the Ben Ngur Bridge, soldiers poured liquid chemicals onto a group of people who were praying. The people who were praying were a group of Buddhist who were protesting against the current President who was Catholic. These people wanted religious equality but that wasn't coming easy for them. Because of the attack the president had the Buddhist leaders come and discuss there version of religious equality, but unfortunately nothing changed for them.
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First Women in Space

Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first women in space on June 16, 1963. She was a Soviet Union astronaut and spent a total of 71 hours orbiting in space. She was on the space life Vostok 5, and during her time in space the Soviets had another space lift orbiting, so she was able to communicate with the other astronauts. Valentina was able to safely return home, and she also received a few awards for her trip to space.

1964 Home

1964 Presidential Election

The democratic candidate Lyndon Johnson against Republican Barry Goldwater. This election is one of the biggest defeats for elections, Johnson won the popular votes by 60%. People of the U.S seemed to have favor over Johnson because of his political views and how he wanted to end poverty in the U.S. Goldwater didn't even have votes from his own party, he was very against everything going on during the cold war. Because of this it was an easy win for Johnson.
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Alaska Earthquake

March 27, 1964 an earthquake lasting no longer than 5 minutes goes in the record book as the largest earthquake in North American history. The earthquake was measured at 9.2 magnitude and killed over 130 people. This quake destroyed towns and homes, costing around $300 million in repair. This particular earthquake was so large it caused aftershocks weeks after it even happened. This earthquake caused a lot of damage in such a short amount of time.

Cigarette Warning

In 1964 a report was made by doctor Luther Terry giving warning that cigarettes might be the cause for many deaths. He found that most people who die of lung cancer had previously been a smoker. His report showed other situations where smoking was the main cause of death. Because of his article millions of people finally stopped smoking but even more continued to smoke.

1964 Abroad

China's first Atomic Bomb

On October 16, 1964 China made their first successful atomic bomb. This caused a lot of tension for the US and the Soviet Union. It was well known that China was trying to spread capitalism to all nations and this could be one way the take over some smaller nations. This particularly made the Soviets nervous because of the splits between USSR and the communist controlled China. Due to China’s successful bomb it made them the 5th nation with “atomic bomb capability.”

Cologne School

On June 11, 1964 Walter Seifert came to a Catholic elementary school and killed 11 children, and injured 22 other people. Reports from doctors and family members show that Walter must of had some type of mental illness because he had many disturbing plans on what he wanted to do to people for no good reason. For example the attack at Cologne. His weapon to harm the children was a flamethrower and a knife, and sadly he did use them on many children and a few teachers. When he left the school he tried to poison himself but it didn't kill him instantly, so he was taken to the hospital by the police where he would eventually die.

Nelson Mandela Imprisonment

On June 12, 1964 Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison. Mandela was in the ANC which was a group against racial discrimination and protested against it. At the time the black people in South Africa were treated very poorly and Mandela and his group wanted to change that, but they tried in a peaceful manor. Him and 7 others were arrested for possibly going against the government, Mandela spent 27 years in prison. During that time people started a "Free Mandela" campaign. Today Mandela is seen as somewhat of a hero, and very inspiring.
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1965 Home

Sound of Music Premiere

On April 1, 1965 was the premiere of the Sound of Music. It's based on a true story of the Von Trapp family and their struggle during the Nazi take over. Julie Andrews plays the main role of Maria who is a nun who leaves the church to help out a family. The film received 5 academy awards as well as a lot of other awards. This movie was given the 4th best movie musical.

Palm Sunday Tornado

On April 11, 1965 was the worst outbreak of tornados in the United States. Most of these tornados happened in the MidWest and killed 250 people. The damage price was about half a billion dollars. The first tornado occurred in Iowa and was rated an F4. The problem with the tornados were the Weather Bureau couldn't communicate with the people. As the day went on tornados got bigger and stronger all around the MidWest.

Mariner 4

This space life was the first one to ever return back with pictures of Mars. The date it returned was October 1, 1965. The spacecraft was able to preform all of the scheduled activities successfully. The total cost of the Mariner 4 was $83.2 million, and the whole Mariner program was estimated to of spent $554 million. The US was finally able to see what exactly Mars looked like.
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1965 Abroad

Dominican Republic Invasion

President Johnson sends 22,000 soldiers over to the Dominican Republic to prevent the possible communist takeover. There had been attacks over the Dominican Republic government due to the reinstatement of the former leader Bosch. The US believed that Fidel Castro was behind all of the violence taking place. So to stop all of it the US troops stepped in. Many other latin countries that the US shouldn't of invaded but president Johnson believed he was helping control communism.

Coal Mine Explosion

June 1, 1965 in Japan a explosion took place in the mine killing 236 workers. There was no way for the workers to know if it was safe or not to be mining because there was no methanometers (measure the amount of methane present). Out of no where there was an explosion that caused the mine shafts to fall, which blocked the escape areas. Luckily there were elevators that not been disturbed so about 250 people were able to escape, but still with injuries. The others were left underground, as families waited to hear if their loved ones had made it. After the incident the trade and industry minister resigned from his position.

Abolition of Death Penalty

In 1965 the British Parliament put in to action the act stating that instead of using the death penalty when someone murders, instead they will be given life in prison. The act didn't mention things like treason, espionage, or something like a military offense. The act was introduced by Sydney Silverman who was a politician. The death penalty wasn't completely abolished until many years later. But the death penalty was ended for those committing murder.

1966 Home

Bobbie GIbb

In February 1966 Bobbie Gibb performed in a marathon. She became the first female to run a marathon. Before the race she sent a request wanting to run but she was declined, because at the time women were still trying to be treated as men. Because of her declined request that made her want to run the marathon almost to prove that women could run too. So she wouldn't she wore a sweatshirt and waited until the group started to run before she jumped in the group. People started noticing that there was a girl running, and everyone supported her. Without her it would of taken a lot longer before women would be able to run with men.
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Charles Whitman

On August 1, 1966 Charles Whitman came to the University of Texas and shot 46 people, killing 14. He was an ex-marine who suffered mental problems. He had been seeing a psychiatrist and told him about his plan to shoot all of those people, but unfortunately his doctor didn't really take that seriously. He came to the school with many different types of guns and shot at the students without a true motive. In his death note he said he wanted a test to see if any mental issues could be found.

How the Grinch Stole Christmas

On December 18, 1966 'How the Grinch Stole Christmas' was released in the US on CBS. It was based off the Dr. Seuss' book and was about the "grinch" trying to end Christmas for the people down in Whoville. The movie has now become a Christmas classic and is played a lot during the ABC's 25 days of Christmas special. The movie was very liked and got many positive views at the time of its releasing. Today How the Grinch Stole Christmas goes down as one of the favorite Christmas movies.

1966 Abroad

France withdraws from NATO

In 1966 the french government decided to remove themselves from NATO, because they didn’t agree with everything that the organization was doing. The main problem for France was the US wanted the NATO atlantic crew would carry the nuclear missiles. This didn’t settle with France because they wanted to be able to control their own ships, and what was armed on them. This truly shocked the allied nations, and for some brought up a bit of anger. Luckily France didn’t cause any big problems for NATO.
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FIFA World Cup

In England from July 11- 30, 1966 the FIFA World Cup was held. The final was between England and West Germany, with England winning 4-2. This was the third time when the winning team won in their own country. This also happens to be the last black and white broadcast filmed. At the end of the game it was scored 2-2 so going into overtime England was able to pull of a win.

Buster Edwards

Was found guilty in 1966 for being apart of the ‘Great Train Robbery’. He was charged 15 years of prison for the robbery but also for beating the train driver, who in the future had many problems that might of been the reason for his death. Buster wasn’t caught immediately, he ran to Mexico with his family where he planned to stay, but wanting to come home he did eventually turn himself in. Buster only spent 9 years in prison, he was later based in a book called “The Train Robbers”. And after that a movie was made about it. At the age of 63 Edwards was found dead in a garage, his death wasn’t questioned because the police thought he might of committed suicide while under intoxication, but it all goes as a mystery.

1967 Home

Super Bowl 1

The first ever super bowl appeared on January 15, 1967 between the Green Bay Packers and the Kansas City Chiefs. 60 million people watched the game as it took place at Memorial Coliseum. Teams were close during the first quarter but as the second quarter came around the Packers took a substantial lead. Sadly the Packers were able to pull of a win of 10-35. This Super Bowl was only the beginning to a history of many other Super Bowls.

John Walker Jr.

John Walker was behind the biggest espionage leak in US history. John had been part of the Navy for most of his life but it was causing troubles with his family and he was low on money, so his thought process brought him to the idea of spying for the Soviet Union. In October 1967 Walker decided to walk into the Soviet Embassy in Washington and give them documents he had secretly copied and snuck out. Walker continued to give the Soviets with information for 18 years without being caught. After his ex-wife and daughter confessing their suspicions of John the FBI were finally able to prove that he was guilty of espionage and sentenced life in prison.

Vin Diesel Birth

Vin Diesel was born on July 18, 1976 in California. He is best known for being in action movies, like all of the Fast and Furious movies. During childhood he took an interest for theater and that continued during his teen years. He dropped out of college in order to produce his make his first movie ‘Multi-Facial’. He was able to truly show his acting skills in a Steven Spielberg film which helped really start his acting career.

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1967 Abroad

Franz Stangl Arrest

He was in command of the Sobibor death camps then was transferred to camps in Poland. He was given the award of “best camp commander”. He was captured by Americans in 1945 then to be handed over to Austria where he in prison. Stangl was able to escape prison but on his run Nazi hunters were able to track him down. He was given partial responsibility for destruction of 900,000 jews, and then was sentenced to life in prison. The odd thing about Stangl was he didn’t hate Jewish people, he just thought they were weak so that made the killing of them acceptable.

first ATM

Created by Luther Simjian, who got the idea from vending machines. A bank called Barclays in London would become the first bank with an ATM. A person would just have to put in their specific code and they would be able to get out money from their bank accounts. It wasn’t until 1969 until the first ATM was installed in the United States. Today ATMs are still used, a simple idea turned into an all around the world product.
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6 day war

A war that began on June 5, 1967, it was fought between Israel against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. It began when Israel noticed that Egypt forces were surrounding the border of Israel. Because of this Israel gave some surprise air attacks against Egypt. Due to the air attacks Egypt had lost most of their air force, so they had Syria and Jordan join the war. After six days Israel called a cease-fire and Egypt signed.

1968 Home

Martin Luther King’s Death

On April 4, 1968 Martin Luther King is shot in a hotel by James Ray. After an hour of being shot in the neck King had died. After the news of his death spread protests and mobs took place especially in black communities. James Ray had escaped from a prison a while before killing King, and after he went on a run all over the place, even to other countries. He was put on the most wanted list and eventually captured. He plead guilty and sentenced to 99 years in prison.
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Zodiac Killer

Unknown killer who was first discovered in 1968. In 1969 he made another attack and called the police department telling them where the deaths were and taking responsibility of the 1968 murders. He sent letters to the department also confessing to murders but then going on to say he was going to commit more murders. The police department still has had no success finding the Zodiac killer because there were know ways to track him down. There is a drawing of what witnesses think he looks like, but the department has had no luck finding him.

Miss America Protest

In 1968 was the start to the “Miss America Pageant”. The leaders of this protest were Radical Women who were very involved in the civil rights movement, antiwar movement, and many other protests. One of the most televised protest was called “Freedom Trash Can” this is where women through a bunch of items that women were best represented with like high heels, playboy magazines, and fake eyelashes. One very known leader was Robin Morgan and almost took offence to Miss America Pageants. She was telling how women aren’t treated with the true value they have but as in how they should look. From this protest it helped start to give notice to the problems of the pageant.

1968 Abroad

USS Pueblo

On January 23, 1968 came in contact with North Korean patrol boats, and the Korean boats insisted on a surrender. But the USS tried to escape which made the North Koreans fire at them. Eventually the USS was captured by the Koreans and 83 of the men were captured while being blindfolded and then placed in prison. The men were forced to learn about propaganda and then beaten if they didn’t follow orders. After 11 months of imprisonment North Korea finally released the men and 82 of them were able to get home.

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1968 winter olympics

Took place in Grenoble, France in 1968 and 37 different countries competed during these events. Norway had won most of the medals, as for the US only winning one gold medal. This will be the first time the olympics are broadcasted in color. These games will also be the first time where they actually verified the athletes to make sure they were telling the truth about their gender. This was also a record setting olympics, an athlete from the USSR ski jumped over 100 meters.

Sextuplets in Britain

On October 2, 1968 was the first recorded birth of sextuplets in Britain. Sheila and Barry Thorns had wanted to have children but couldn’t, so with the help of fertility treatment they were finally able to conceive not just one, but six children. The babies were born two months early, four boys and two girls. Unfortunately one of the girls passed away shortly after being born. The other five were under medical care due to being born so premature. The fertility doctors started thinking of ways they could allow the parents to decide how many children they would like to possibly have rather than be unprepared for so many.

1969 Home

Richard Nixon

On January 20,1969 Richard Nixon became the 37th president. Nixon becomes the first president to resign, he decided to resign before being impeached. During his run for presidency him and his team were caught in a scandal. It was found that they had broke into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee. But one good thing he was remembered for was the start of ending the hatred between the US and the Soviet Union. Now some people consider him a great president and others consider him a criminal.

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Apollo 11

On July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first men to land on the moon. This mission had been a plan of former President Kennedy and was finally reached 8 years later. Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon. A very known quote made by Armstrong was, “That’s one small step for man, one giant for mankind.” At the time the US and the Soviet Union were in what was known as the “Space Race” when both countries were trying to have the biggest accomplishments with the race to space. This really put the US in a strong lead.

Robert R.

In 1969 15 year old Robert R died in St. Louis, MO from AIDs. He is the first confirmed person of having AIDs. When the doctors first saw Robert R they tried to help him but nothing was helping, he was losing weight, always tired, and many infections. His doctors tried to surgically remove the HIV disease but were not successful. Unfortunately Robert soon did die of this disease, after the doctors tried to use his body to figure out ways to in the future cure the HIV disease.


Robin Knox- Johnston uk

In 1969 Robin officially becomes the first man to sail around the globe non-stop. He started the the Golden Globes Race in 1968 one one of the smallest to enter around the race. Many of his competitors either dropped out or either stopped places along the way. Robin was able to finish the race 20 days ahead of his closest competitor. With his prize money he gave it to the family of a man who attempted to sail around the globe and failed, and sadly committed suicide.

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Kray Twins

During the 50s and 60s Ronnie and Reggie Kray were part of a gang that they had formed called the Firm. They scared many people who were involved in those kinds of things and were very threatening. The twins had robbed, assaulted and murdered two people. They were able to get away with a lot of their crimes because of their cleverness. But finally in 1969 the twins were arrested for the deaths of the two men, both were sentenced life in prison. Ronnie was eventually certified as insane and died in a mental hospital, as for Reggie he died soon after his release from prison.

Willy Brandt

In 1969 Willy Brandt becomes the new West Germany chancellor. In 1933 Willy he had escaped from the Nazi persecutions to Norway. During that time he became a journalist, in 1948 he came back to Germany and became a citizen. He tried to become chancellor in 1961 but that job was given to Konrad Adenauer. After he worked his way to the German minister and was eventually given the position of chancellor in 1969.