Research Cassina

Syringe pump battery

traders and farmers(Syringe pump battery)

Research Cassina

Cassiopeia is a constellation in the northern hemisphere situated next to Cephus. It contains fifty-five stars.

Research Cassiopeia

Caste is an Indian hereditary class system with members socially equal, united in religion and usually following the same trade.Syringe pump battery A member of one caste has no social intercourse with a member of any other caste except their own. There are four main groups: Brahmans (priests), Kshatriyas (nobles and warriors), Vaisyas (traders and farmers) , and Sudras (servants); plus a fifth group, Harijan (untouchables) with hundreds of subdivisions existing within each caste. No upward or downward mobility exists, as in socially classed societies.

The system of caste dates from ancient times, and there are more than 3,000 subdivisions. In Hindu tradition, the four main castes are said to have originated from the head, arms, thighs, and feet respectively of Brahma, the creator; the members of the fifth were probably the aboriginal inhabitants of the country, known variously as Scheduled Castes, Oppressed Classes, Untouchables, or Harijan (a name ironically coined by Gandhi meaning 'children of God' - ironically because Ghandi suppressed the Untouchable uprising which was demanding equality and actively promoted the continued abuse of the Untouchables). This lowest caste handles animal products, rubbish, and human wastes and are considered to be polluting by touch, or even by sight, to others. Discrimination against them was supposedly made illegal 1947 when India became independent, but persists, with millions of Untouchables being treated inhumanely and as virtual slaves, being beaten, raped and murdered should they 'forget their place' and perhaps use a village well reserved for all other castes. Members of the Untouchable caste are segregated from the rest of society, and forced to live in appalling conditions, some scratching a living by cleaning the sewers, others by foraging for food scraps from rubbish bins.

Research Caste

Castile soap is a type of hard, white soap made from olive oil sometimes including iron rust matter.

Research Castile Soap

Castor is a star (Alpha Geminorum) of magnitude 1.6, the fainter star of the zodiacal constellationGemini, or the Twins. In 1719 it was discovered to be a visual binary star, with components of magnitudes 2.8 and 2.0 separated by 6 seconds of arc and revolving around each other in about 350 years. Electric-Driven-ventilator Each of these components has been found to be a spectroscopic binary. In addition, a faint companion, separated from the other two by 72 sec of arc, has been discovered. This star is also a spectroscopic binary, the two components of which revolve around each other in about one day. Hence, the entire system of the star Castor contains at least six stars. Its distance is about 45 light- years from the earth.

Research Castor

Casuistry is the science which deals with difficult cases of conscience - i.e. which undertakes to apply acknowledged principles of conduct to doubtful cases, or cases where there seems to be a conflict of duties. The science was developed systematically by the medieval church in the 14th and 15th centuries.

Research Casuistry

A cat burglar is a burglar characterised by climbing buildings so as to enter through the upper levels, as distinct from a common burglar who breaks in through any convenient point.

Research Cat Burglar

The cat and fiddle is a popular British public house sign. The sign owes its origins to being a corruption of Caton le fidele which actually means Caton, governor of Calais, and not the cat and the fiddle!

Research Cat and Fiddle

Catacombs are subterranean cemeteries.

Research Catacomb

A catafalque is a temporary and ornamental structure, representing a tomb, placed over the coffin of a distinguished person or over a grave.

Research Catafalque

A catamite is a young boy kept for homosexual sex by an older man. The practice occurred in ancient Greece, where older men would take boys with the parents permission as homosexual lovers, and in return ensured the boy received an education, thereby relieving the parents of the financial burden of paying for the boy's education. The ancient Mayas provided single young men with a slave boy for sex, so as to protect other men's wives and the women from the attentions of overly-anxious young single men.

Research Catamite

In geography a cataract is a large waterfall, or series of waterfalls.

Research Cataract

A catechism is an elementary book containing a number of principles in any science or art, but originally particularly in religion, reduced to the form of questions and answers. Catechisms were quite rare, until the format was adopted by the computer industry in the form of the FAQ (frequently asked questions).

Research Catechism

Catheterophilia is sexual arousal from catheters.

Research Catheterophilia

The Cato Street Conspiracy was a plot to murder British ministers in 1820. Arthur Thistlewood, who had already been mixed up with revolutionary projects, conceived a plan for assassinating Lord Castlereagh and his ministerial colleagues at a dinner in Grosvenor Square, London on February 23rd. Arms were collected in a hired rendezvous in the neighbouring Cato Street. The plot was discovered, and Thistlewood and his colleagues (Brunt, Davidson, Harrison, Ings, Monument, Tidd and Wilson) were arrested (Arthur Thistlewood escaped at the time, but was arrested the next day). All eight were sent to the Tower of London and Thistlewood and four others were hanged for high treason on May the 1st 1820.

Research Cato Street Conspiracy

Catoptromancy is divination by means of mirrors.

Research Catoptromancy

The catty was a Chinese unit of weight equivalent to 1.5 lbs.

Research Catty

A cauldron is a large boiling vessel, usually of a deep basin shape with a hoop handle and a removable lid.

Research Cauldron

A causeway is a raised road across a low or wet piece of land.

Research Causeway

A cavalcade is a procession of riders on horse-back.

Research Cavalcade

A cave is a deep hollow place under ground.

Research Cave

Cavendish is softened tobacco which has been sweetened with molasses and then pressed into cakes. Cavendish was first manufactured in the USA by a company called Cavendish.

Research Cavendish

Cavo-Rilievo is a form of sculpture in which the highest surface of the relief is only level with that of the original stone.

Research Cavo-Rilievo

A cedilla is a mark made under the letter c, especially in French, to indicate that it is to be pronounced like the English s.

Research Cedilla

A ceilidh is a Gaelic festival of singing and dancing held in Scotland and Ireland.

Research Ceilidh

A cellaret is a receptacle, usually in a dining room, for a few bottles of wine or liquor, made in the form of a chest or coffer, or a deep drawer in a sideboard, and usually lined with metal.

Research Cellaret

Cement is a mixture of chalk and clay used for building.

Research Cement

A cenotaph is a monument erected in honour of a deceased person, but not containing his body. The Greeks erected cenotaphs, and a number were built in England after the Great War, the most famous is in Whitehall, London which was designed by Sir E Luytens and unveiled by the King on Armistice Day (11th November 1920).

Research Cenotaph

The census is a questionnaire issued every ten years in Britain which gathers detailed figures concerning the population, classified according to sex, age, occupation, size of families and geographical distribution.

Research Census

The cental was a weight of 100 pounds legal in Britain since 1879 and used primarily for corn. The term was invented by Danson, a barrister, in order to meet the need for a uniform measure in the Liverpool corn trade. It was first introduced in February 1859, and legalised twenty years later.

Research Cental

Centaurus (the Centaur) is a southern constellation, which is visible chiefly south of the equator. The brightest star in this constellation, Alpha Centauri, is also the third brightest star in the sky. It is about 4.3 light-years from the earth and is the closest visible star to the earth's solar system. The star is actually a double star, with a third star, Proxima Centauri, revolving around the others.

Research Centaurus

The Centennial Exhibition was an international exhibition of arts, manufactures and products of the soil and mines held at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, during the summer of 1876. It was the first international exhibition held in the USA, and was also an anniversary exhibition of the world's progress in the hundredth year of the existence of the USA. The exhibition was proposed by the citizens of Philadelphia in 1870. In 1872 Congress permitted the appointment of a Board of Finance. This board raised a capital stock of $10,000,000 from among the citizens of Philadelphia. Congress afterward appropriated $2,000,000 as a loan; the State of Pennsylvania $1,000,000, and Philadelphia $1,500,000. Many European and other foreign countries sent exhibits, which were admitted free of duty under bond. The exhibition was open from May the 10th until November the 10th. The paid admissions numbered 8,000,000.

Research Centennial Exhibition

A centiare is a French measurement, the hundredth part of an are.

Research Centiare

A centner is a European name for a hundred-weight.

Research Centner

A cento is a poem formed out of verses taken from one or more poets, so arranged as to form a distinct poem. CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) was a defensive union of the 1950s to 1970s comprising the member states of the USA, UK, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and Turkey with the aim of meeting a Communist attack on one of the member states. Iraq withdrew in 1958 and Pakistan in 1972 before the organisation was dissolved.

Research Cento

The Central Criminal Court was set up in 1834 in the Old Bailey, which stands on the site of old Newgate Prison. Here serious criminal cases from London and the surrounding areas are heard.

Research Central Criminal Court

Ceramics are brittle materials made from the strong heating of clay, such as pottery and china.

Research Ceramics

Ceres is a planet with a diameter of 256 km which was discovered on the 1st of January 1801 by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo. It was named Ceres after the goddess Ceres who was so highly esteemed by the ancient Sicilians.

Research Ceres

A chafing-dish was a portable grate for coals, used for heating objects.

Research Chafing-Dish

The chain is a unit of the imperial scale of measurement of length equivalent to 22 yards or 20.168 metres. A chain is comprised of 100 links, each 7.92 inches long. 10 chains equal one furlong, and 10 square chains equal one acre.

Research Chain

In arithmetic, a chain rule is a theorem for solving numerical problems by the composition of ratios, or compound proportion, by which, when several ratios of equality are given, the consequent of each being the same as the antecedent of the next, the relation between the first antecedent and the last consequent is discovered.

Research Chain Rule

The chalder was a Scottish dry measure containing 16 bolls, equivalent to 12 imperial quarters. It was originally used in weighing grain.

Research Chalder

The chaldron is an old English unit of capacity measurement equivalent to 36 bushels. It was used as a measure of coal in England, equal to 6,800 lbs.

Research Chaldron

A chalice is a ceremonial cup.

Research Chalice

The Chamberlain's Men were an Elizabethan stage troupe. It's most famous member was the young William Shakespeare.

Research Chamberlain's Men

In legal talk, chambers are the rooms where barristers do their work before appearing in court.

Research Chambers

The chambre a crucer was an old tortuous method of execution in which the victim was packed in a heavy chest together with numerous sharp stones before being buried alive.

Research Chambre a Crucer

Chance-Medley is a now obsolete legal term which has been replaced by the term 'manslaughter'. It described a homicide which occurred either in self- defence, on a sudden quarrel, or in the commission of an unlawful act without any deliberate intention of doing mischief.

Research Chance-Medley

A changeling is a child substituted for another, usually at birth. There was formerly a belief that weak or peevish children were changelings, perhaps swapped by fairies or other evil spirits.

Research Changeling

Chap-Books were a type of cheap literature sold cheaply by chapmen and peddlers who hawked them from district to district. They contained stories and biographies of a generally popular nature and were the fore runners of modern periodicals.

Research Chap-Book

Chapadmalal is a world famous stud-horse farm in Argentina.

Research Chapadmalal

A chaperon was a device placed on the foreheads of horses drawing a hearse.

Research Chaperon

A chaplet is a string of beads used by Roman Catholics to count the number of their prayers. A chaplet is a third of a rosary, and usually consists of fifty-five beads.

Research Chaplet

A chariot was a two wheeled vehicle used in ancient warfare.

Research Chariot

The Charles River Bridge Case was an important American Supreme Court case. In 1785 the Legislature of Massachusetts incorporated a company to build a bridge over the Charles River from Charlestown to Boston, granting tolls. In 1828 the Legislature granted the incorporation of another company to build what is known as the Warren Bridge, which was eventually to be free. The first company brought suit in the Supreme Court of Massachusetts for an injunction to prevent the erection of the Warren Bridge, stating that the act of the Legislature incorporating the second company impaired the obligations of a contract made with the first company and was therefore repugnant to the National Constitution.

The Supreme Court of Massachusetts found judgment for the defendant, and this decision was confirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1837, on the ground that a State law may be retrospective and may divest vested rights, without impairing contract. This was a limitation of the decision given in the Dartmouth College case.

Research Charles River Bridge Case

Charterhouse is a celebrated school and charitable foundation in the city of London. It was built in 1371 as a priory for Carthusian monks by Sir Walter Manny. After the dissolution of the monasteries it passed through several hands until it came to Thomas Sutton who converted it into a hospital and school. In 1872 it was moved to Godalming and the premises in London sold to the MerchantTaylors' School. New buildings were erected at the original site in 1875.

Research Charterhouse

In Norman times, a chase (or chace) was a hunting ground stocked with beasts and under private, rather than royal ownership which was called a forest. A chase was protected only by common law.

Research Chase

Chasing is the art of working decorative forms in low-relief in gold, silver or other metals.

Research Chasing

The Chatham Chest (later GreenwichChest) was a fund established in 1590 on the recommendation of Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins for the relief of sick and wounded seamen. The deduction of money from seamen's pay to the fund ceased in 1829 by which time the fund was practically merged in the general relief funds of the GreenwichHospital.

Research Chatham Chest

Chauvinism is fanatical devotion to a cause, especially patriotism. The term comes from Nicholas Chauvin who was a soldier so enthusiastically devoted to Napoleon that his comrades ridiculed him.

Research Chauvinism

The Cherokee Nation v Georgia was an important case heard before the US Supreme Court, and decided in 1831. By the Hopewell treaty of 1785 the United States recognized the Cherokees as a nation capable of making peace and war, of governing its citizens and of owning and governing its lands. About 1826 the Georgia Legislature through Governor Troup declared these treaties not. binding upon the State, on the ground that Georgia and the Federal Government were equal and independent powers, and that disputes between them could not be decided by the Supreme Court, but by negotiation.

In 1830 an act was passed by the Georgia Legislature authorizing a survey and apportionment of the Cherokeelands within the State, their gold mines were seized and they were considered under the Slaters dominion, thus ousting the Cherokees from the lands solemnly guaranteed by the United States. The Cherokees. applied to President Jackson without success. Then they tried the Supreme Court. This court decided them not a foreign State, capable of maintaining an action in the court, but a domestic, dependent nation. The injunction was refused and the Cherokees relegated to the mercy of Georgia. Later, in the case of Worcester v Georgia, State authority in such matters was denied by the Supreme Court, Federal treaties being declared to have precedence.

Research Cherokee Nation v Georgia

On December the 10th 1778, the village of Cherry Valley in Central New York was destroyed by 700 Tories (supporters of the English king) and Indians. About fifty inhabitants were murdered without regard to age or sex. The massacre was typical of British methods against the colonists and further encouraged the American colonists desire to break away from British rule.

Research Cherry Valley Massacre

In 1807 three Negro sailors deserted from the British man-of-war 'Melampus' and enlisted on the United States ship 'Chesapeake'. The British squadron was then just within the Virginia capes. The British admiral demanded a surrender of the sailors. This was refused by the US Government. Accordingly, on June the 22nd, as the 'Chesapeake', in a half-prepared condition, was sailing out from Hampton Roads, a lieutenant from the British ship 'Leopard' boarded her and again demanded the deserters. Upon being refused, CaptainHumphrey immediately opened fire upon the 'Chesapeake' which Commodore Barron, who was wholly unprepared, was compelled to surrender without firing a gun.

President Jefferson at once issued a proclamation demanding a disavowal of the act, the restoration of the captured sailors and the recall of Admiral Berkeley. Though some tardy reparation was made, the affair greatly exasperated American opinion against the British, and contributed to bring on the War of 1812.

Research Chesapeake and Leopard Affair.

The term 'grinning like a Cheshire cat' is coined to describe a wide cheesy smile. The term originates from olden times when cheese was made in the form of cats in Cheshire, and hence the term provides the allusion to a cheesy grin. The phrase was popularised in the book 'Alice in Wonderland' where the character of the Cheshire cat, a cat with a persistent wide smile, occurs.

Research Cheshire Cat

A chest was a British measurement of tea ranging from 80 to 84 lbs.

A chest was a British measure of clover equivalent to 200 lbs, in use during the 19th century.

Research Chest

The Chevrolet Corvair was an American low-priced economy car produced from 1959 to 1969 in response to imports of European economy cars. The Chevrolet Corvair was produced in various models, including a four-door saloon and a convertible. They were powered by either a 2377 or 2684 cc air-cooled flat six engine rated at between 80 and 180 bhp providing a top speed of between 140 and 170 kmh.

Research Chevrolet Corvair

The Chevrolet Corvette Stingray was an American sports car produced between 1963 and 1967. The Chevrolet Corvette Stingray was powered by a V-eight engine, varying in capacity between 5365 and 7000 cc and providing between 250 and 560 bhp, and a top speed of between 190 and 235 kmh depending upon engine.

Research Chevrolet Corvette Stingray

Chiaroscuro is a style of painting in black-and-white, representing light in shadow and shadow in light so that the parts represented in shadow still have the clearness and warmth of those in light.

Research Chiaroscuro

A chibouk or chibouque is a long Turkish smoking-pipe used for smokingtobacco. Similar pipes are used in North Africa for smokinghashish.

Research Chibouk

The University of Chicago was first founded in 1857, but closed 1886 through financial troubles. In 1890 it was entirely reorganized, largely through the gifts of John D Rockefeller.

Research Chicago University

The Chickasaw Case was a famous American court case in the anti-slavery campaign. In 1836 a writ of habeas corpus was served against CaptainEldridge of the brig 'Chickasaw' for holding two black women with the intent of carrying them South. The women were ordered discharged on their presenting free papers. This action against Eldridge resulted from the efforts of Northern people in organizing vigilance committees against kidnapping.