Mining And Fracking

By: Olivia and Annalise

Types of Mining

Surface Mining- Mining that takes place above the surface using techniques such as Strip, Open Pit, and Mountain Top Removal

Subsurface Mining- Is a type of mining that takes place underground using techniques such as Slope, Drift, and Shaft


Surface mining is safer and much easier than Subsurface mining. Due to the sizable amount of top soil that is disturbed, it is more destructive to the environment than other types of mining.

On the other hand, Subsurface mining is more laborious and expensive to excavate. There are also many risks such as low oxygen levels, the accidental release of harmful gases, natural disasters like collapsing of tunnels, and the dangerously high temperatures.

Surface Mining

Subsurface Mining


Fracking is the process of drilling and injecting water into ground to release natural gases. The process requires drilling into the surface and pumping water in. Water is then mixed with sand and chemicals to create pressure on the pipes along with gravity. The pipes crack the rock around it and the rock releases gases back up.


It can release harmful chemicals into the water supply and gases into the atmosphere. It affects the rock around the pipes and puts pressure on the crust.