The Excretory System

By Alex Reyes & Braden Willingham

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Nephron (Cell that makes up a kidney)

The nephron is part of the homeostatic mechanism of your body. This system helps regulate the amount of water, salts, glucose, urea and other minerals in your body. The nephron is a filtration system located in your kidney that is responsible for the reaborption of water, salts. This is where glucose eventually is absorbed in your body. One side note, diabetics have trouble reaborbing the glucose in their body and hence a lot of it comes out in the urine - hence the name "diabetic" or "sweet urine."
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Nephron Tissue (tissue that makes up a kidney)

Many combined nephron cells that make up the structure of the kidney.
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Kidney Organ

Every minute 1300 mL of blood enter the kidneys, 1299 mL leave the kidney. and 1 mL leaves as urine.The kidneys have many functions. The kidneys are the major organs that maintain homeostasis (balance of the various body functions) in the body and help control blood pressure. They maintain balance in electrolytes, acid-base, and fluid in the blood. The kidneys remove nitrogenous waste from the body (creatinine, urea, ammonia) and keep essential substances the body needs to function as it should. The kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin that stimulates the production of red blood cells and enzymes.
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The Urinary/Excretory System

The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food components that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.

The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.

Other important functions of the kidneys include blood pressure regulation and the production of erythropoietin, which controls red blood cell production in the bone marrow. Kidneys also regulate the acid-base balance and conserve fluids.

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Organism

Every day, the two kidneys filter about 120 to 150 quarts of blood to produce about 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra fluid. The urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder through two thin tubes of muscle called ureters, one on each side of the bladder. The bladder stores urine. The muscles of the bladder wall remain relaxed while the bladder fills with urine. As the bladder fills to capacity, signals sent to the brain tell a person to find a toilet soon. When the bladder empties, urine flows out of the body through a tube called the urethra, located at the bottom of the bladder. In men the urethra is long, while in women it is short.
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Homeostasis In The Kidney

Fluid Balance

The renin mechanism of the kidneys works to maintain fluid balance that affects your other organs. However, the kidneys internally work to maintain homeostasis as well. The kidneys filter blood, which contains sodium, potassium and other salts that are necessary for your cells to function. The kidneys maintain this fluid balance by speeding up or slowing the rate at which they filter. If your body needs more fluids, such as when you are dehydrated, the kidneys will take in more fluids and you will urinate less. However, when your body has too much fluid -- such as when you have had a large glass of water to drink -- your kidneys will increase their filtration rate, which causes you to urinate more. This maintains homeostasis by ensuring you have the proper amount of bodily fluids to maintain cell functioning.

Kidney Failure

Complete and irreversible kidney failure is sometimes called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. If your kidneys stop working completely, your body fills with extra water and waste products. This condition is called uremia. Your hands or feet may swell. You will feel tired and weak because your body needs clean blood to function properly.
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Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer -- also called renal cancer -- is a disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grow out of control, forming a tumor. Almost all kidney cancers first appear in the lining of tiny tubes (tubules) in the kidney. This type of kidney cancer is called renal cell carcinoma. The good news is that most of kidney cancers are found before they spread (metastasize) to distant organs. And cancers caught early are easier to treat successfully. However, these tumors can grow to be quite large before they are detected.
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Circulatory System

The blood in the circulatory system moves through the kidneys, leaving waste, and then moves out.
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The Integumentary System

The Sweat that comes out of the skin through the skin is waste which is managed by the excretory/urinary system.
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The Digestive System

The food waste processed through the digestive system goes through the urinary/excretory system.

Citations

Nephron Tissue: http://cache4.asset-cache.net/gc/139812089-human-simple-cuboidal-epithelium-kidney-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=08fcxfxZjBJ26AQSGGc%2ByY75PIxinXNsmr5Hca1lVLXU6DS2olabXRv%2FMvYEL8pF

Nephron Cell: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2e/2611_Blood_Flow_in_the_Nephron.jpg/725px-2611_Blood_Flow_in_the_Nephron.jpg

Kidney: http://www.jigzone.com/p/up/V/FG/30/cz6e.jpg

Nephron Info: https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080319050151AAlqCke

Nephron Tissue and Kidney Function Info: http://www.healthpages.org/anatomy-function/kidney/

Urinary System: http://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default%3Fid%3Danatomy-of-the-urinary-system-85-P01468&rct

Organism Kidney Info: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/Anatomy/kidneys-how-they-work/Pages/anatomy.aspx

Morgan Freeman: http://www.wearemoviegeeks.com/wp-content/uploads/Morgan-Freeman.jpg

Kidney Pic: http://www.oustormcrowd.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Kidney-human-anatomy.png

Kidney Homeostasis: http://kidney.templehealth.org/content/fail.htm

Kidney cancer pic: http://www.laparoboticsurgery.com/wp-content/uploads/kidney_cancer.jpg

Kidney cancer: http://www.webmd.com/cancer/understanding-kidney-cancer

Circulatory: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-KJluywb-YFI/VThgYlfa8VI/AAAAAAAAC24/YC-vMPGug84/s1600/circulatory-system.png

Integumentary: https://healthsciencetechnology.wikispaces.com/file/view/2648353_orig.jpg/481626782/2648353_orig.jpg

Digestive: http://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/articles/health_and_medical_reference/digestive_disorders/yourdigestivesystem_DigestiveSystem.jpg