Kidney Cancer

"Find a cure for kidney cancer. Someone I love is waiting."

What really is kidney cancer?

Kidney cancer is a cancer that originates in the kidneys. The kidneys are two small organs, around the size of small soda can. They are part of the excretory system, and they filter waste and excess fluids out of blood by producing urine. They are vital for your healthy living conditions. Kidney cancer is disease in which kidney cells become malignant (cancerous) and grow out of control, forming a tumor.


(Riya Patel)

Where in the body is affected?

In the body as the name of the cancer indicates the kidneys are the organ that is affected. The kidneys are two bean shaped organs. The function of the kidneys is to extract waste from blood, balance body fluids, form urine, and aid in other important functions of the body. Also as the cancer advances the cancer can affect the regional lymph nodes, adrenal glands, bones, lungs and even your brain (Kidney Cancer Information).


(Brandon McPherson)

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(Brandon McPherson)

Background Information and History of the Kidney Cancer

From 1992 to 2008 the number of regular cases sky rocketed from about ten people out of every 100,000 to over 15 people. Then from 2008 to 2012 the number of cases out of every 100,000 men and women leveled out not increasing anymore. From 2005 to 2011 73.2 percent of all people with kidney cancer survived (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program). In the late 1990’s immunotherapy was first introduced as a treatment option for kidney cancer (Evolution of Cancer Treatments). In 2004 the treatment option of targeted therapies that would treat kidney cancer were finally approved after being first purposed in the 1970’s by a Judah Folkman (Evolution of Cancer Treatments).


(Brandon McPherson)

Stages of Kidney Cancer

Stage I: The tumor is 7 cm or smaller also then is only located in the kidney and hasn’t spread to any part of the body (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


Stage II: The tumor now is larger than 7cm but still is contained in the kidneys and hasn’t spread to other part of the body (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


Stage III: There is a tumor of any size located in the kidneys smaller or bigger then 7cm, but now the cancer has metastasized to the nearby lymph nodes. The tumor has also grown into surrounding tissue and major veins but still is contained in the area of the kidneys and hasn’t spread to any distant places in the body (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


Stage IV: The cancer has progressed and is in the advanced stages and has spread outside of the region of the kidneys into the adrenal glands on the same side of the body as the tumor but now has spread to distant organs in the body, such as the lungs, bones, heart, and brain (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


(Brandon McPherson)

How is the cancer staged or categorized in stages?

There is a system that the doctors use to help categorize the stage of your kidney cancer, this system is called the TNM. Through diagnostic tests and scans the doctors can find the answers to these questions. The first one is Tumor (T): How large is the primary tumor? Where is it located? Second question answered is Node (N): Has the tumor spread to the lymph nodes? If so, where and how many? Final the third question answered that makes up the TNM system is Metastasis (M): Has the cancer metastasized to other parts of the body? If so, where and how much? This will categorize the stage of the kidney cancer if u do have cancer the stages go from stage I being the most early on stage and stage IV which is the most advanced stage of the cancer (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


(Brandon McPherson)


· What are the “T” stages of kidney cancer?

- “T0 – there is no evidence of a primary tumor in the kidney” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).

- “T1 – the tumor is no more than 7cm across and is completely inside the kidney” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).

- “T2 – the tumor is more than 7cm across, but is still completely inside the kidney” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).

- “T3 – the cancer has spread through the outer covering of the kidney (the capsule), to a major vein, the adrenal gland or other tissues around the kidney” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).

- “T4 – the cancer has spread further than the tissues around the kidney” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


(Brandon McPherson)


· What are the “N” stages of kidney cancer?

- “N0 – No cancer in any lymph nodes” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).

- “N1 – Cancer spread to one nearby lymph node only” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).

- “N2 – Cancer spread to more than one nearby lymph node” (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


(Brandon McPherson)


· What are the “M” stages of kidney cancer?

“As with most cancers, there are two stages for metastases (or cancer spread). Either the cancer has spread (M1) or it hasn't (M0)" (Stages of Kidney Cancer).


(Brandon McPherson)

Cancerous Kidney ("Cancer Pictures").

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Symptoms

Blood in the urine

Low back pain on one side

A mass or lump on the side or lower back

Fatigue tiredness

Fever that is not caused by an infection and that doesn’t go away

Loss of appetite

Weight loss not caused by dieting

Anemia

(5 Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Cancer)


(Brandon McPherson)

Treatment options

Multidisciplinary teams lead by a urologist or a urologic oncologist, with the aid of other doctors and specialists work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. Kidney cancer is most often treated with surgery, targeted therapy, and/or immunotherapy ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options").


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)


Surgery:


Radical nephrectomy is the removal of the tumor, tissue surrounding the tumor, and of the kidney itself ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options"). This procedure can cost from $15,000-$75,000 on surgery alone; the addition of drugs can add $50,000 to almost $200,000; which can total to as much as $500,000 ("How Much Does Kidney Cancer Treatment Cost?”).


Partial nephrectomy is the surgical removal of the tumor. Kidney function is preserved and the risk of developing chronic kidney disease after surgery is greatly reduced ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options"). a traditional nephrectomy costs around $7,917, and can rise to as much as $9,409 when robot assisted ("Robotic Partial Nephrectomy Not Cost-effective, Researchers Say").


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)


Targeted Therapy:


Anto-aniogenesis therapy focuses on preventing the creation of new blood vessels. This deprives the tumor from nutrients it needs to grow ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options").


Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are drugs that block the excessive growth of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which occurs due to a mutation in the VHL genes ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options").


mTOR inhibitors are drugs that slow kidney cancer growth by targeting a specific cancer causing protein ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options").


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)


Immunotherapy:


Immunotherapy is designed to boost the body's defenses to fight malignant cells. Its purpose is to improve or restore immune function. Different drugs work in different ways and treat different stages of kidney cancer. Some drugs use cellular hormone hormones to get results. The use of interferon to alter the proteins on the surface of cancer cells slows their growth ("Kidney Cancer - Treatment Options").


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)

Genetic Link

The gene that is affected in kidney cancer is VHL. The chromosome that has been altered by the cancer is 3p26. A person can contract the VHL gene by inheriting it from their parents. It can also be diagnosed by multiple hemangioblastomas or if in young patients, multiple bilateral clear renal cell carcinoma. By having this gene, one is 40% more likely to develop kidney cancer than others. By having a mutation in the chromosome, people have an increased risk of getting kidney cancer and other symptoms of VHL (Cancer.Net Editorial Board)


(Riya Patel)

Life After Kidney Cancer

Having cancer doesn't mean the end of the world. Life after cancer can be very successful, even through the limitations caused by it. Some lifestyle changes may include:



  • A change in diet and exercise habits
  • Breaking habits such as smoking tobacco
  • Cutting down on alcohol consumption
  • Treatments my cause a change in the ability to taste, nausea, weight loss, loss of desire to eat, or weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • Decline in physical ability

("Lifestyle Changes after Treatment for Kidney Cancer").


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)

Can kidney cancer be prevented?

In some cases, kidney cancer can be prevented. Other cases like inherited cancer cannot be prevented. Cigarette smoking is responsible for a very large percent of preventable cases. If one were to quit smoking, the less of a chance they have to get kidney cancer. Obesity and high blood pressure also play as huge risks for kidney cancer. Maintaining a healthy weight by exercising and choosing a diet high in fruits and vegetables, and getting treatment for high blood pressure may also reduce one's chance of getting this cancer. The last way is to avoid workplace exposure to harmful substances such as cadmium and organic solvents may reduce one's risk for kidney cancer (American Cancer Society).


(Riya Patel)

Statistics for Kidney Cancer in 2015. Are you still at risk?

In the most recent charts from 2012 studies show that kidney cancer was the eleventh most common cancer world wide in men, women and children. Charts and studies now show that kidney cancer world wide is rank twelfth as of 2015. There were over 338,000 cases diagnosed in 2012 (Kidney Cancer Statistics | World Cancer Research Fund International). As of march 8, 2015 there was over 50,000 new reported cases of kidney cancer. The overall five year survival rate for those diagnosed with kidney cancer is very high at 72 percent (Kidney Cancer - Statistics). Yes everyone is at risk while teenagers and children are quiet rare cases it is very common in men and women to have kidney cancer.


(Brandon McPherson)

Why you should Support Kidney Cancer

Countless individuals and their loved ones suffer face the effects of kidney cancer every single day. These people need your support in order to stay strong and prevail in the fight against this cancer. The longer these people live uncured of kidney cancer, the less likely they are to win in their battle. Help them win in their fight. This is a lesser known cancer as compared to breast cancer or prostate cancer, so this means it usually receives less attention and support. Kidney cancer affects millions of Americans each year; our friends, our neighbors, our family. Don’t make them wait any longer. Educate yourself about the causes and effects of kidney cancer. Research your family’s history with cancer. Get regular testing. Do all that you can to help kidney cancer charities and support groups. Act now. "Find a cure for kidney cancer, someone I love is waiting."


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)

Kidney Cancer Charities and Support Groups

Best Kidney Cancer Organization?

The finest kidney cancer organization is www.kidneycancer.org as they are directly giving the money donated for cancer to research to help find a cure. They are the most famous and well-known. People should donate their money to this charity as their money is insured to go to the right people and is not just a scam. They are a professional charity and are determined to help fund for a cure for kidney cancer ("Kidney Cancer Association").


(Riya Patel)

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Wipe Out Cancer Event

When? 11/19/15 @9:00am

Where? 1555 Old Peachtree Rd NW, Suwanee, GA 30024


This event will take place to spread awareness about different types of cancer.

*Don't forget to bring money to donate towards a teacher being pied in the face!*


(Riya Patel)

Survey Questions

What can YOU do as a teenager to prevent yourself from getting kidney cancer?

How can you help those who already have this caner?


What changes will you make in your life, habits, and routine now that you have learned more about kidney cancer?


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)

Want to contact us? Here's how...

Follow us on Instagram and Twitter for more info and updates : @krazyforkidneys

In Honor of Dianne Kay,

In honor of Dianne Kay,

an American actress who was diagnosed with kidney cancer in 2001. She has no relatives or past family members that have been affected by the cancer. One day, Dianne decided to have an MRI scan and the doctor saw a little lump had formed on her right kidney. She had gotten her kidney taken out and she is still living today at age 61("The Official Website of Dianne Kay").


(Gabriela Maduro - Salvarrey)

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