Chemistry of life

Samira Long

Water

Water is important because scientists look for it on other planets to see if there could be life.

  • Heat Storage: Water takes a lot of energy and time by warming up and cooling down i.e. sweating.
  • Water is it only substance that is less dense as a solid rather than a liquid so it floats.
The pH scale is from 0-14, 0-3 is acidic ( lemon juice) , 4-10 is neutral (rain, water, and wine) , and 11-14 is basic (soft soap and lye)

Adhesion is the attraction of water molecules to other substances.

Wicking is when water moves up substances due to capillary action i.e. water up a pant leg.

Cohesion is the attraction of water molecules to each other. This can be called surface tension i.e. droplets or water strides.


Macromolecules

Are large molecules made up of carbon. To be organic the molecule needs to be made up of carbon. Some other atoms that are used is Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphourus and sulfur.

Types of Macromolecules

  • Carbs (sugar)
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic Acids


Carbohydrates

Types:

  • Monsaccharides ex. Glucose, frutose (fruit sugar)
  • Disaccharides ex.Sucose (table sugar), lactose milk
  • Polysaccharides ex.Starches, cellulase, chitin
  • Oligrosaccharides ex. plasma membrane, proteins, lipids




Lipids:

Types:

  • Saturated fats ex. long chains of carbons with all bonds filled by hydrogen's
  • Unssturated fats ex. Has one double bond (mono) which causes a kink in the chain in which does not allow the fat to solidify
  • Polyunsaturated fats ex.Has more than one double bond in the chain.

Nucleic Acids

Types:

  • Dexiribonucleic Acid (DNA) ex. Carry our genetic information
  • Ribonculeic Acid (RNA) ex. Code for amino acids (protein)
  • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) ex. "Molecule Currency" of energy transferred in to cells.


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Food example of proteins