Reformation and Enlightenment
The Revolution in Haiti
During the 1780s, the American Revolution inspired Haitian slaves in the French section of Haiti. At the time, Haiti was split into three sections: Spanish, French, and British. Toussaint L'Ouverture (too-SAN loo-wehr-TYOOR) was slave for the French. As a young boy, his master would read him stories of Spartacus and how he rebelled against his Roman masters. During the time he was growing up, the slaves and white plantation owners grew angry under the rule of the French and masters in general. At the time, he didn't help plan the revolt. Toussaint didn't want his nice master and mistress to be harm and put them in a wagon. He drove so fast to the coast. When he returned from sending his masters off, the plantation was gone. It was then when he joined the revolt. He became the general of the rebels and outsmarted France, Spain, and England numerous times. Then France declared war on Britain and tons of slaves fled to the Spanish pert of the island. The slave soldiers started to trickle back over to the French side. Then, Spain signed its part over to the French. Toussaint and his soldiers wove through bushes to confuse the enemy. This made them look larger in number when they really wern't. In April of 1803, Toussaint died but his men kept fighting. In November of 1803, the troops captured the last city occupied by the French.
The Columbian Exchange
A soldier-adventurer named Hernan Cortes (ER-nahn kahr-TEHZ) sailed into Mexico with an army of 600 men. The year was 1519, Cortes and his men marched into the very wealthy Aztec capital, Tenochitlan (tay-noch-teet-LAHN). When they defeated the Aztecs, they just went along with it and ruled Mexico. Cortes was the conquerer of the Aztecs! But, He had some help. Smallpox really killed the Aztecs. How did they get them? Smallpox was just one thing in the trade between the Old and New World called the Columbian Exchange. That is the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Western Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere that began with Columbus's first voyage. The Columbian Exchange brought diseases like syphilis. The disease actually made it normal to see people with rotting faces on the street. Even though there were diseases, the Columbian Exchange brought fond health. Some plants were: corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, manioc, a root plant from South America, and American beans. As it brought death, the Columbian Exchange breathed life.
The Salon of Madame Geoffrin
Madame Geoffrin (ZHAW-fruhn) was a wealthy French woman who hosted gatherings known as salons in Paris. They consisted of important philosophers, writers, and artists; They came to share their ideas with one another. But, Madame Geoffrin was smart. She never allowed to groups that didn't agree come at the same time. Like, writers and artists. Everyone there had to also throw in a witty remark in here and there. The people really enjoyed them.