Type 2 Diabetes

By: Carly Schlabaugh

Definition

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease in which there are high levels of sugar in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Symptoms

  • Increased thirst

  • Increased hunger

  • Dry mouth

  • Frequent urination

  • Unexplained weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Blurred vision

  • Headaches

  • Numbness and tingling of the hands and feet

Causes

  • When the pancreas does not produce any insulin.

  • When the pancreas produces very little insulin.

  • When the body does not respond appropriately to insulin.

  • Lack of physical activity

  • Obesity

Diagnosis

  • Glycated Hemoglobin Test
- This indicates your average blood sugar level for the past few months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached the hemoglobin. A level of 6.5% or higher indicates that you have diabetes.


  • Random Blood Sugar Test
- A blood sample is taken at a random time. A sugar level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates that you have diabetes.

  • Fasting Blood Sugar Test
- A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast. A sugar level is 126 mg/dL or higher indicates that you have diabetes.


  • Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
- After an overnight fast, a sugary liquid is drank. Blood sugar levels are tested periodically over the next few hours. A reading of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates diabetes.


Treatment

  • Monitoring blood sugar levels

  • Healthy eating

  • Physical Activity

  • Medication

  • Insulin Therapy

  • Bariatric surgery

Statistics

  • Type 2 Diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes.

  • 2 million new cases of Type 2 Diabetes were diagnosed in U.S. adults in 2010.

  • Cases of Type 2 Diabetes cost the United States an estimated $174 billion in 2007.

  • If either parent suffers from Type 2 Diabetes, a child’s risk of developing the disease is 15%. If both parents have the condition, the risk of developing it is 75%.

Prevention

  • Eating a healthier diet

  • Increasing physical activity

  • Regular Exercise

  • Medication to lower cholesterol and high blood pressure

Citations

"Type 2 Diabetes." University of Maryland Medical Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2013. <http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000313.htm>.


"Diabetes Health Center." Signs of Type 2 Diabetes. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2013. <http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diabetes-warning-signs>.


Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Type 2 Diabetes." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 25 Jan. 2013. Web. 26 Apr. 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-2-diabetes/DS00585/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis>.


"Type 2 Diabetes Statistics and Facts." Healthlines RSS News. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2013. <http://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes/statistics>.