RENAISSANCE FIGURES

done by:Madhu K

DaVinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci; (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of paleontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time.
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Leonardo helped set an ignorant and superstitious world on a course of reason.

A small catalog of his innovative designs include:

Flying machines, parachutes, submarines, underwater rebreathing devices, self floatation/ocean rescue devices, swimming fins, pumping mechanisms, water turbines, dredging systems, steam calorimeters, water-well drill, swing bridges, canals, leveling/surveying instruments, cranes, pulley systems, street-lighting systems, convection roasting spit, mechanical saw, treadle-operated lathe, compasses, contact lenses, and military weapons.

Some famous scientific accomplishments include:

Proposing the earth rotates around the sun, proposing that the moon's light is reflected sunlight, correctly explaining why sea shells are sometimes found miles inland on mountain tops, and creating the first textbook of human anatomy.

Da Vinci was a great thinker, and left back many interesting inventions which are being used now. He discovered so many things for us that he should be treated like god. He was multi-talented as he has found out so many things in every aspects.

Donatello

Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – December 13, 1466), better known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance sculptor from Florence. He studied classical sculpture, and used this to develop a fully Renaissance style in sculpture, which his periods in Rome, Padua and Siena introduced to other parts of Italy over his long and productive career. He worked in stone, bronze, wood, clay, stucco and wax, and had several assistants, with four perhaps a typical number. Though his most famous works are mostly statues in the round, he developed a new, very shallow, type of bas-relief for small works, and a good deal of his output was larger architectural reliefs.
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Donatello 1386-1466 was one of the greatest sculptors. He was interested in the ideas of humanism and nature. Donatello's paintings a lot of vibrant colors and unusual view points and strangely twisted figures. When Donatello returned to Florence before 1405 he received a payment in November 1406. In the Latter year, he was offered with an important group for the marble David. Donatello sculpted his marble David in Florence. He was made to order and sculpt it on the brick wall of the Cathedral (a church were usually the bishop is associated). The sculpture was never put in place, so it was moved to the Palazzo Vecchio.The statue stood there with a symbol for civic pride.
Donatello invented the thin relief technique. In the thin relief technique the sculpture seems deep but is actually done on a very shallow plane. Donatello had a huge impact on the art and artists of the Renaissance. Overall, Donatello is one of the greatest sculptors of all time. His techniques are still used by sculptors today, and his amazing work will never be forgotten.

Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus -( 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.[a] The publication of this model in his bookOn the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres just before his death in 1543 is considered a major event in the history of science, triggering the Copernican Revolution and making an important contribution to the Scientific Revolution.
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The main contribution that Copernicus offered to the intellectual discourse was the idea that all planets revolve around the sun. Copernicus's primary offering was to suggest that the geocentric theory that placed the Earth at the center of the universe was inaccurate. Rather, it is the sun that is the focal point for all planetary rotation and movement.
The influence of the insight that Copernicus developed was profound. It helped to trigger a shift of thought, a changing paradigm with which to analyze the world and the individual's place within it. Copernicus was widely credited with having a major influence on the scientific revolution, which placed scientific inquiry first before all other presuppositions. Copernicus helped to trigger the belief system that would embrace rational thought and inquiry before belief systems and zealous hope. Observations and scientific data became more widely accepted and understood as a result of Copernicus's contribution to intellectual discourse. It is in this light where his influence was profound and helped to inspire other thinkers to come forth with their own theories that were grounded in observable fact and scientific phenomenon.

Machiavelli

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli- 3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. He was for many years a senior official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language.
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He was one of the most influential writers of the Renaissance. Although he wrote on many topics, Machiavelli is best remembered for the political advice he offered in 1513 in The Prince.Machiavelli counseled the ruler to be kind only of it suited his purposes. Otherwise, he warned, it is better to be feared than loved.
Machiavelli's ideas had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern west, helped by the new technology of the printing press. During the first generations after Machiavelli, his main influence was in non-Republican governments.Machiavelli’s book became one of the most influential books in history. The term machiavellian is used today to describe conduct associated with ambition, deceit, and brute force.

Humanism

The great intellectual movement of Renaissance Italy was humanism. The humanists believed that the Greek and Latin classics contained both all the lessons one needed to lead a moral and effective life and the best models for a powerful Latin style.
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The humanists emphasized the importance of human values instead of religious beliefs. Humanists of the Renaissance were often devout Christians, but their promotion of secular, or non-religious values, often put them at odds with the church.The humanists studied the classics – the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans. In the works of the classics, Renaissance scholars found an earlier way of thinking similar to their own. They believed the classical outlook had not been fully explored since the fall of the Roman Empire in Western Europe. The humanists recreated classical styles in art, literature, and architecture. Humanists believed that by studying the classics, they could better understand people and the world.
Today we refer to the study of literature, philosophy and art as the humanities. Greek and Roman civilizations declined and fell long ago, but those civilizations continue to influence us today through the humanities.

Secular

Secularism or Secular Humanism is a way of life and thought that is pursued without reference to God or religion. The Latin root saeculum referred to a generation or an age. "Secular" came to mean "belonging to this age, worldly." In general terms, secularism involves an affirmation of immanent, this-worldly realities, along with a denial or exclusion of transcendent, other-worldly realities. It is a world view and life style oriented to the profane rather than the sacred, the natural rather than the supernatural. Secularism is a nonreligious approach to individual and social life.
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Secularism, any movement in society directed away from otherworldliness to life on earth. In the European Middle Ages there was a strong tendency for religious persons to despise human affairs and to meditate on God and the afterlife. As a reaction to this medieval tendency, secularism, at the time of the Renaissance, exhibited itself in the development of humanism, when people began to show more interest in human cultural achievements and the possibilities of their fulfillment in this world. The movement toward secularism has been in progress during the entire course of modern history and has often been viewed as being anti-Christian and antireligious. In the latter half of the 20th century, however, some theologians began advocating secular Christianity. They suggested that Christianity should not be concerned only with the sacred and the otherworldly, but that people should find in the world the opportunity to promote Christian values. These theologians maintain that the real meaning of the message of Jesus can be discovered and fulfilled in the everyday affairs of secular urban living.

In the Renaissance the main ideas of humanism came from the people opposing the ideas of the bible and of the Christian church. As the period of medieval rule came to an end, people became more aware and known to social and humanist ideas. What citizens wanted was the place between god and man to disappear and humanists were the ones that were up to the job. Many humanists decided to look back at what the ancient Greeks and romans had already worked on as that usually provided a better of the world. The church was starting to lose the trust of its followers and that is when people decided to split from it. Splitting from the church was a big thing back in the renaissance as it meant you defied god. However people had to do this as they were constantly being told things that had no real backing except the bible and god said so. Therefore the movement had a major impact in the Renaissance period.

the medici family

The first member of the Medici family to hold high public office was Ardingo de Medici, elected Gonfaloniere in 1296. Two more members of the family held the office again within the next 30 years. The family went through a short period of decline afterward until Salvestro de Medici returned the Medici to prominence, holding the office of Gonfaloniere in 1370 and 1378. He would actually be the last of the Medici to hold such a high office until the 16th century - the truly powerful Medici chose to rule from behind the scenes.
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Today we refer to the study of literature, philosophy and art as the humanities. Greek and Roman civilizations declined and fell long ago, but those civilizations continue to influence us today through the humanities. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the west, a number of prominent families took control of the city and often fought wars among themselves. The later Medici were shrewd businessmen whose Medici Bank was the largest and most respected financial institution of the Renaissance.
The Medici are most famous for their patronage of the arts. Patronage is where a wealthy person or family sponsors artists. They would pay artists commissions for major works of art. The Medici patronage had a huge impact on the Renaissance, allowing artists to focus on their work without having to worry about money. They worked in peace because even if they don't like their work they can redo it as they were wealthy.

Michelangelo

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.[1] Considered as the greatest living artist in his lifetime, he has since been held as one of the greatest artists of all time.[1] Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
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Michelangelo was without doubt one of the most inspirational and talented artists in modern history. One of the leading lights of the Italian Renaissance, his extraordinary talents emerged in early works such as the Pieta for the Vatican, and the statue of David commissioned for the city of Florence. His paintings and frescoes were largely taken from mythological and classical sources works. He manage to combine his high level of technical competence and his rich artistic imagination to produce the perfect High-Renaissance blend of aesthetic harmony and anatomical accuracy in his works.
Michelangelo not only outshines all his predecessors; he remains the only great sculptor of the Renaissance at its best. What most Late Renaissance artists lacked was not talent but the ability to use their own eyes and share a vision with either their contemporaries or posterity. Michelangelo's extreme genius left little scope for works that escaped his influence, damning all his contemporaries to settle for aping him.

Appreciation of Michelangelo's artistic mastery has endured for centuries, and his name has become synonymous with the best of the Italian Renaissance. Along with a small band of contemporaries, he was responsible for sixteen-century Florence becoming the center of a movement of artists that has permanently enriched western culture.

Shakespeare

William Shakespeare ( 26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 16) was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon". His extant works, including collaborations, consist of approximately 38 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.
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Shakespeare Embraced the Renaissance in the Following Ways:
  • Shakespeare updated the simplistic, two-dimensional writing style of pre-renaissance drama. He focused on creating “human” characters with psychologically complexity. Hamlet is perhaps the most famous example of this.


  • The upheaval in the accepted social hierarchy allowed Shakespeare to explore the humanity of every character regardless of their social position. Even monarchs are given human emotions and are capable of making mistakes.
  • Shakespeare utilized his knowledge of Greek and Roman classics when writing his plays. Before the renaissance, these texts had been suppressed by the Catholic Church.
His Contribution to the renaissance was that he created a new style of play writing because he mixed both tragedy and comedy into one "which in his times was a big deal because way back then comedies were comedies and tragedies were tragedies,they were never collaborated." He was also known for his theater, The Globe.

raphael

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino; April 6 or March 28, 1483 – April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.
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In Renaissance times the Vatican in Rome held much more influence than the state within a state that we know today, it was the hub of the city. Raphael literally arrived on the scene in 1508, the same year that Michelangelo began work in the Sistine Chapel.
At the age of 25 he found a patron, Pope Julius II, and was given the task of decorating rooms in the pope's private apartments. The Stanza also known as the Raphael rooms, are located on the upper floor of the Vatican palace. The rooms already contained works by Piero Della Francesca, Perugino and Luca Signorelli, but the Pope decided that these works would have to be sacrificed to accommodate the young artist's frescoes.
He took the styles of Michelangelo and Leonardo, who were both older than he was, and the style Perugino, his master, and mixed them all together with his own great natural skills, creating remarkably beautiful paintings, often bright, with angelic figures, but sometimes darker. For four hundred years he was thought the greatest painter of all time, the prime representative of High Renaissance ideals: clarity, perfection, grace, and Platonic love, as in his Madonnas. But the Romantics, who preferred Michelangelo, and the Pre-Raphaelites, as well as a general change in tastes, overthrew his reputation, and he is now usually ranked below Michelangelo and Leonardo, whose Creation of Adam and Mona Lisa are more famous than anything Raphael painted.