Southern Colonies

Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

Virginia

The Virginia Colony was founded in 1607 by John Smith. The reason for the establishment of the colony was because the colonist were in search of gold and silver. The cash crop of Virginia was tobacco. In 1614, John Rolfe planted tobacco and made enough to send four barrels to England, which was instant success. Virginia first had a Corporate government but then it changed to Royal. House of Burgesses was the first legislative assembly. Virginia had around 2,500 colonists when it was established. Native groups that inhabited around the area were the Algonquian, Tuscarora, and Croatan. The English colonists did have problems with the leader of the Algonquian tribe, Powhatan. The religious group that inhabited in Virginia were Anglican. Virginia imposed laws forcing all to attend Anglican public worship.

Maryland

Maryland was founded in 1634 by George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore. The reason for the establishment of this colony was because of religious freedom, especially for Catholics. Maryland's cash crop was tobacco. Maryland was governed as a Proprietary colony. When this colony was established, it contained around 600 colonists. The Native tribes that inhabited Maryland were the Lenape, Nanticoke, Powhatan, Susquehannock, Tutelo and Saponi. Due to the English invasion, they brought epidemic disease such as tuberculosis, influenza, measles, and small pox resulting in huge losses to the Maryland Indian population. There were no religious groups that inhabited Maryland but after 1692, it was Anglican. The Maryland Act of Toleration of 1649, this act granted religious freedom to all Christians.

North Carolina

The North Carolina colony was founded in 1653 by the Virginia colonists. The reason for the establishment of this colony was because of trade and profits. North Carolina made its money by naval stores, which included everything used to build a ship, "Tar, Pitch, and Turpentine." North Carolina was first governed as a Proprietary colony, but then it changed to Royal. When the colony was it established, there were 1,000 colonists. Native tribes that inhabited in North Carolina were the Cherokee, Creek, Tutelo, Tuscarora, Croatan, Catawa and Carolina Siouan. Several sources of conflict arose between the colonists and the Tuscarora. For example, the European settlers often cheated the Natives in trade and sometimes killed them to keep the goods they were trading. These were some of the factors that lead into the Tuscarora War. The religious group that inhabited the colony were the Anglicans. During the 1600s, the Proprietors of the huge colony and land named "Carolina" realized that it was impossible to have one governor and one assembly to control a colony as big as Carolina. Later in 1712, North Carolina became a separate colony.

South Carolina

The South Carolina colony was founded in 1663 by eight Lord Proprietors. The reason for the establishment of the colony was for trade and profits. South Carolina's cash crop was rice and indigo. Liza Lucas is given credit for the discovery of indigo. South Carolina was first governed as a Proprietary colony but in 1721 it became a Royal colony. When South Carolina was first established, it started off with 200 colonists. Native tribes that inhabited South Carolina were the Cherokee, Creek, Catawba and Carolina Siouan. Indian populations in South Carolina declined greatly after the arrival of European settlers. They were not immune to the diseases. It killed as much as two-thirds of the Indian population in SC.The religious group that inhabited South Carolina were the Anglicans.

Georgia

The colony of Georgia was founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe. The establishment of this colony was used as a buffer or barrier to avoid conflicts with the Spanish in Florida. Oglethorpe also founded the colony as a haven for debtors. Georgia's cash crop was rice and indigo. Georgia was established as a Royal colony. When this colony was first established, it started off with around 2,000 colonists. Native tribes that inhabited the region were the Apalachee, Cherokee, Yamasee, Guale, Creek, Miccosukee, and more. There were no conflicts between the colonists and the natives. Oglethorpe had a friendship with the Yamacrow chief, Tomochichi. He had respect for the Indians. The religious group that inhabited the Georgia colony were the Anglicans. A significant event that happened around the establishment of Georgia was the War of Jenkins' Ear, which was a conflict between the Spanish and English over the land between South Carolina and Florida. There was a combination of victories and defeats. Settlers joined forces with the Indians to push back Spanish threats.