How it shaped the world
The renaissance was a time of great exploration. From Columbus and the mayflower, to Sir Francis drake, many leaps were made to change the world. In this time religions were founded and discoveries were made.
I. The Mayflower
A. It all started in 1620 when pilgrims from England took a voyage from England to Massachusetts with only sails, wind and brave sailors.
B. There were 102 passengers and about 25-30 crewmembers. It took them 66 days to get to Cape Cod.
C. They had intended to land in Virginia but the weather was too harsh for them to go to the Hudson River. On November 9th they had saw land and they decided to keep going south to go towards the Hudson River. They never made it to the Hudson River because of bad weather so they decided to land in Plymouth.
II. Nicholas Copernicus
A. Nicholas Copernicus was born in Torun, Poland, on February 19, 1473, with the name of Mikolaj Kopergnick.
B. With his heliocentric model of the universe, the Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus ignited the scientific revolution and created a serious rift between science and religion. He was never charged with heresy but the church rejected his theory after his death on May 24, 1543.
C. He was the first to suggest and prove that the earth was not the center of the universe and that there were many other celestial bodies that we're moving along with the earth.
III. Sir Francis Drake
A. Sir Francis Drake’s goal was to ﬁnd a route across the Americas to England.
B. Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins were involved in the slave trade. He had to attack the Spanish Main so they would be allowed to trade.
C. He led three raids on Spain’s New World, along the western side of Americas, and he became the ﬁrst captain to navigate around the world.
D. During the Anglo-Spanish war he was in charge of attacking colonies in the new world.
E. He is known as one of the greatest English sailors of all time.
In September 1620 a ship called the mayflower set sail from Plymouth a port on the southern coast of England. The mayflowers usual cargo was wine and dry good but for this voyage it was 102 passengers hoping to start a new life on the other side of the Atlantic. (American history1)
There were about 40 protestant separatists who referred to themselves as saints who wished to establish a new church in the new world. They had two ships on the voyage with them the mayflower and the speedwell but as soon as they set sailed the speedwell started to leak so they had to turn both ships back to port and squeeze everyone and their luggage onto the mayflower. With the speedwell having a leak it delayed the process and the mayflower had to set sail on the Atlantic on the roughest storm season. (American History 7)
The voyage was not an easy one may passengers got ill and some did not make it. After two long months at sea they finally started to see the new world they had seen this empty abandon Indian village and that’s it. They realized that they were in the wrong place but stayed because the weather was to dangerous and for the most part they could not use there sails because of the winds so for the most part they just had the wind drift them.( American history 7)
With on 53 passengers alive they finally where going to spend their first winter in America and it wasn’t an easy one most died for malnutrition diseases and bad weather circumstances. Thank goodness they had the Indians help them out with farming and other thing that could help them out to get through the winter. They Indians and pilgrims budded heads at some points but then became friends and helped each other out and they had their first thanksgiving together and today is why we have the holiday. (American History8)
Nicholas Copernicus was a polish astronomer who was born on February 19, 1473 by the name of Mikolaj Kopergnick. When he was 10 his father died so he was put under guardianship to his maternal uncle named Lucas Watzenrode. Lucas paid Nicholas's college fund to study medicine. He finished and received his medical degree. During college he gained an interest in astronomy so after college he pursued his passion.(Bourgoin)
He created a theory of the heliocentric universe in which the sun is the center of the universe and every planet revolves around it. He also stated that the earth spins around the sun while spinning on its axis. He was the first person to discover and prove this theory. At first he shared his work with his friends but eventually in 1543 he published it with the title of “de revolution ibis orbium coelestium”.(Nicholas Copernicus)
He waited a few years to publish the work because at that time the church was dealing with the heresy of Martin Luther. Even though this was revolutionary it was very controversial because it changed everything about astronomy and science. While this theory didn’t sit well with the science community it also did not sit well with the Catholic Church. Although he was never charged with heresy, the Catholic Church banned his major work after he died on May 24, 1543 from a stroke.(Bourgoin)
Sir Francis Drake
Explorers in the sixteenth century were people of curiosity and adventure. Sir Francis Drake was a privateer who sailed for Queen Elizabeth. In 1577, he sailed on a secret mission to find a route across the Americas for England. His accomplishments include sailing west around the world to England and defeating a huge Spanish armada sent by Philip II to take England. He did not find the route that he was looking for but he may have been the greatest explorer of all.
Sir Francis Drake was born around 1540. His father was a farmer who “preached the Protestant gospel to sailors of the English Navy” (page 16). His father did not have enough money to send him to training school so he became an apprentice seaman and eventually became a crew member on his cousin's fleet. His cousin, Sir John Hawkins, was a successful slave trader.
Drake and Hawkins sailed to the Spanish Main to try to sell the Africans that they had kidnapped. The Spanish government refused to allow them to trade because they lacked the proper permits. Drake and Hawkins attacked the Spaniards and demanded to be allowed to trade. A battle soon followed, the only ships that survived were those captained by Drake and Hawkins. This battle caused Drake to become a lifelong enemy of Spain. “The Spanish viceroy of Mexico had now made the worst enemy Spain would ever face: Francis Drake” (page 27).
Drake led three raids on Spain’s New World possessions between 1570 and 1572 (Sir Francis Drake). The last expedition was successful and ended with the “capture of the annual Peruvian silver caravan at Nombre de Dios in Panama” (Sir Francis Drake). Drake then raided settlements along the western side of the Americas and the South American coast. He became the first captain to survive the voyage around the world. By returning to England by the Cape of Good Hope (Sir Francis Drake).
Drake played an important role in Anglo-Spanish War. Queen Elizabeth asked Drake to lead the attack on Spanish ships and colonies in the New World. In 1587, he led a naval attack that sank twenty ships and postponed the Armada by a year (page 107). In 1589, a failed attack on Lisbon led him to semi-retire.
Sir Francis Drake’s habit of privateering led to his death. He became ill with dysentery while waiting to raid Porto Bello, died, and was buried at sea on January 28, 1956. His success and patriotism led Queen Elizabeth to raise him from a commoner to an aristocrat. Sir Francis Drake is one of the great heroes in the history of England.
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