Mining types and Fracking

Surface Mining.

Surface mining includes strip mining, the process of removing a mineral deposit from the Earth after first removing the layer of Earth above it, open pit mining, cutting benches into the walls of a broad, deep funnel-shaped excavation, and also mountaintop removal, the removal of the tops of mountains, gathering coal from it in the process (occasionally called strip mining on steroids.

Subsurface Mining.

Subsurface mining is mining below the surface, these methods include shaft mining, the process of drilling down into the earth and carving out shafts to mine in with limited access, slope mining is drilling at a steady incline, creating a tunnel before leveling out and mining out the coal where you find it (good for mine carts), and there's also drift mining, which is simply drilling straight into the earth without any slope until you hit a coal pocket, usually through the bases of mountains.
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is the process of sending high speed water with chemicals into the earth, cracking it and removing minerals, but the chemicals can be left underground and sometimes pollute the water source.