By Noah M. and Jenna O. 5th Period
In the 1830's most schools were governed and supported by the local community.
Men like Horace Mann, the first secretary of education for Massachusetts, and Henry Barnard, first U.S. Commissioner of Education, wanted more state control of funding and curriculum including school facilities and education for all children.
McGuffey Readers introduced texts pointed towards different grade levels.
Michigan was the first state to enter the union that had written in its constitution that the government is responsible for promoting and supervising public schools.
Education for Women and African American’s slightly improved with some coeducational schools and some fought to let African Americans attend school as well in the 1800's
During the 1840's bilingual education for German immigrants was allowed by Cincinatti, Ohio.
In school there were strong debates on the separation of state and church.
In the 1840's, the foreign population of immigrants grew to half New York population.
Most schools used teachings from King James version of the Bible, which contained many anti-catholic passages.
Catholic people demanded funding for catholic schools this action led to major anti-catholic riots.
African American people also fought for their equality in education.
Down in the South it was against the law to teach a slave, and in the North the schools were segregated.
An African American man named Benjamin Roberts helped fight against segregation when his daughter was refused admittance to elementry school due to her race.
Benjamin Roberts filed a lawsuit in the Massachusetts courts, the Massachusetts State Supreme Court ruled against Robert's case .
Later on arguments used in the case were used in federal courts for at least a hundred years later.
Later on in 1855 a law passed prohibiting racial segregation in Masachusett’s schools.
Women started to become more involved into the teaching fields their salaries were half of male teachers, and women usually had supervision of a male principle.
Teachers usually taught using rote memorization, and with penmanship practiced by writing verses into a copy book.
During the 1850's Massachusetts legislated the “Compulsory Attendence Act of 1852”.
This law made it mandatory for children age eight to fourteen had to attend school for a minimum of three months per year.
In 1855, Massachusetts finally abolished segregation in schools; also in 1857 the National Teachers Association was founded.
Down South their education still lagged behind the North, only four states in the South region had public schools.
Usually poor white children went to school in one-room school houses or taught basic three “R’s” at home.
Most African American children no education, and very little ever recieved any education.
The Civil War greatly effected all of society including the children, children were now drawn into events through schools and families.
There were even orphan schools, that were supported by donations, was established for kids with parents that died in the war.
Both the North and the South used teaching to promote patriotism and support.
One example was they replaced ABC examples with things like “ O is an Officer proud of his station”.
Before the Civil war the North published most textbook because of this the South began producing it’s own textbooks.
Ex” “ If one confederate soldier kills 90 yankees, how many can ten Confederate soilders kill?”
In the South schooling and education was still mainly a wealthy privilage most schools were private.
Poorer kids still had education like in the 1850's, and few African-Americans got academic education with classes taught in secret.
The Classrooms were divided into grades separate schools for different grades, while boys and girls were together in primary school they were eventually separated in grammar school.
Even Northern African Americans were still sometimes segregated in their schools due to low funding in rundown buildings with little supplies.
During the Morril Act of 1862 or Land Grant College act, money was provided from sales of public land put in endowment fund to support colleges.
For the remaining of the late 1800's women still continued to make their way through the teaching field.
Timeline of the Gold Rush
The California gold rush lasted from 1848 to 1855.
Was started on January 24, 1848 when James W. Marshall found a gold “nugget” at Sutters Mill which is close to Coloma.
Before 1848 the population of San Francisco was around 200, after 1855 it was over 100,000.
Travel to California
Forty-Niners were the men and women who traveled long distances to get to California in 1849. (This name was later used as a name for a local football team).
Their legacy was the ‘forty-niners’.
This was the focus of many travelers who visited the new land in the mid 1800’s.
Most miners had to go through many long and tiring journeys to get to the goldfields This included disease, theft, labor, walking, kidnapping, and many other violent crimes committed by ruffians in the 1800’s.
Much of nearby cities populations were almost depleted when many men and women moved inland to get to the gold grounds.
People who were influenced
Around 100,000 native Americans were killed from disease and around 4,500 were murdered by the new folk who came over seas.
The news got out to the world through a newspaper in San Francisco saying “Gold! Gold! Gold from the American river!”
President James Polk confirmed the discovery of gold on December 5th, 1848.
It brought around 300,000 people from around the world seeking gold and good fortune from the rivers and banks of California.
"American Cultural History." Kingwood College Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/19thcentury1830.htm>.
"American Cultural History." LSC-Kingwood Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/19thcentury1840.htm>.
"American Cultural History." LSC-Kingwood Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/19thcentury1850.htm>.
"California Gold Mining." Educational Technology Clearinghouse. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 May 2013. <http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/30600/30600/caligoldmine_30600.htm>.
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Unable to Cite:
http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/19thcentury1860.htm (American Cultural History - 1860s)
http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/images/oneroomschool.jpeg ( School House) http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/images/morris.jpg ( Benjamin roberts) http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/images/highschool.jpeg (School house drawing)
http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/images/oneroomschool.jpeg ( School House)
http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/images/morris.jpg ( Benjamin roberts)
http://kclibrary.lonestar.edu/images/highschool.jpeg (School house drawing)