Chapter 8 Study Guide

By: Jake Kamean

Chapter 8.1

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The Map

The map above is a map of ancient India and the many areas, bodies of water, and mountain ranges.
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Chapter 8.1 Vocab

Vedas- holy rituals written down by priests

Brahmins (Priest): study and teach vedas, religious ceremonies, ensure welfare of people

Kshatriyas (Warriors/Rulers): Study Vedas, lead government, head of army

Vaisyas (Common people, merchants, artisans, farmers): Tend herds, care for land, make and sell products

Sudras (Unskilled Laborers, Servants): serve other varnas

Pariahs (slaves): perform tasks considered unclean, lived outside the cities

dharma (duties) of each male in each varna

Mahabharata (epic poem that outlines one must do their duty no matter what)

Mahabharata-100,000 verses multiple authors

Ramayana- 24,000 verses struggle between good and evil Rama (good king) and wife, Sita

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The Varnas

The Varnas is the social rankings of people in ancient India described in the paragraph bellow.

Chapter 8.1

Chapter 8.1 is about the being of India and how it rose to power. India is a country near the middle east. India's main language was Sanskrit and was used as across the country. They believed in the Varnas which is the social rankings of people in India. They believe if you did your Mahabharata they would move up the social class rankings (displayed above). Mahabharata is the tasks each individual is assigned as their duty to do. These Mahabhararas were written into an epic with over 100,000 verses and was written by multiple different authors. There was another famous epic called the Ramayana with over 24,000 verses about the struggle between good and evil. The good king Rama and his evil wife Sita.
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Chapter 8.2

Chapter 8.2 Vocab

Four Noble Truths

all people suffer and know sorrow

people suffer because their desires bind them to reincarnation

end suffering by eliminating desires

eliminate desires by following the Eightfold Path

The Eightfold Path

know truth

resist evil

say nothing to hurt others

respect life

work for the good of others

free their minds of evil

control their thoughts

practice meditation

Nirvana- freedom from rebirth

stupas: large stone mounds over the bones of holy people

Theravada: S/SE Asia, regards Buddha as a teacher

Mahayana: China, Korea, Japan; Buddha as a divine being and savior

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Chapter 8.2

Chapter 8.2 is about the change in religion in ancient India. In 566 BC a man named Siddhartha Gautama was born in India. He was destined to become either a great religious leader or a great and powerful king. His parents wanted him to be a great king so they sheltered him from the outside world. One night he left the castle and saw all of the sufferings in the world. He vowed to cure human suffering and from there he made the journey into the woods to a tree. Under this tree, he meditated for about 40 days until he became enlightened. He changed his name to Buddha and founded a religion on the principles of the Four Noble Truths which are, all people suffer and know sorrow, people suffer because their desires bind them to reincarnation, end suffering by eliminating desires, eliminate desires by following the Eightfold Path. The religion spread throughout the country and became its main religion.

Chapter 8.3

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Chapter 8.3

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Chapter 8.3 Maurya Empire

321 BC- Chandragupta Maurya overthrew king

  • skilled administrator

  • created a postal system

  • strong army and sy network

  • Empire included Northern and Central India

  • lasted until 184 BC

  • Asoka’s Enlightened Rule

    • Chanragupta’s grandson: Asoka

    • began rule in 274 BC

    • fierce army

    • took over ⅔ of Indian sub continient

    • became buddhist after seeing a bloodied battle field
    • Asoka’s Enlightened Rule Cont’d

      • passed laws stressing concern for others

      • Rock Edicts: laws written on stones throughout empire in local languages

      • Public Projects:

        • free hospitals and vet clinics

        • roads

        • rest hourse

      • ** Hindu caste system continued

      • Died in 232 BC: successors were harsh, heavy taxes→ murdered & empire split in 2
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Chapter 8.3 Gupta Empire

310 AD: Chandragupta I

  • Madadha base of kingdom

  • ruled for more than 200 years

  • later called, GOLDEN AGE

  • did what they needed to maintain power

  • small empire
  • Gupta Religion:

    • encouraged learning based on the Upanishads

    • Hinduism- religion of empire

    • viewed Hindu deities as ways to worship the Brahman Nerguna
    • Gupta Life:

      • reached its height under Chandragupta II

      • 375 AD- 415 AD

      • eased tax ns

      • wrote rules for grammar, politics and politics

      • Sanskrit became major language

      • Women’s rights declined:

        • arranged marriages and child marriages

        • little power or independence

        • Achievements:

        • writers welcome- mostly focused on religion and folk tales

        • Panchatantra- moral stories through animals

        • Dramas: Kalidasa wrote Shauntala

        • Math: algebra, zero and infinity, Arabic numerals (1-9)

        • Astronomy: gravity, earth is round

        • Medicine: set bones, medical instruments