Skill Learning Principle & Practice

Chapter 10 Summary

Type of Movement

Motor Skills:

Gross skill that involves the recruitment of larger muscle groups.

Fine skill that involves the recruitment of the smaller muscles for precise movements.

Discrete skill that has a distinct beginning and end.

Continuous skill that has no obvious beginning or end point.

Serial the combination of several discrete skills performed in a sequence.

Closed skill where the performer has greatest control over their environment.

Stages of Learning

Cognitive the beginner stage. Understanding the basics. "What is to be done?".

Associative intermediate stage where the performer gets a more consistent style with fewer errors. Refining the technique.

Autonomous the advanced stage. The performer is no longer consciously thinking about the skill. The focus is now on strategy and tactics.

Reaction Time & Anticipation

Reaction Time the delay between a stimulus and the initiation of a movement. Between every stimulus and the initiation of a response there is a small time delay.

Anticipation the ability to predict a likely even occurring. Performers being able to read the play. A performer that appears to have predicted what is about to happen has anticipated the play.

Learning Styles

A learning style is the preferred form of communication for receiving and processing information.

Visual a visual learner prefers to see demonstrations of the task they are about to perform.

Auditory an auditory learner prefers to have verbal instructions.

Kinaesthetic a kinaesthetic learner likes it hand on and likes to experience the task.

Blocked and Random Practice

Blocked Practice repetitive of the same task.

Random Practice varied sequencing if different motor skills in the same training session.

internal and External Feedback

Internal feedback from the performers own senses.

External knowledge of results or knowledge of performance.