Little smiles

The journal of pediatrics

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About us

The Journal of Pediatrics serves as a practical guide for pediatricians who manage health and diagnose and treat disorders in infants, children, and adolescents. The Journal seeks to publish high quality original articles that are immediately applicable to practice (evidence-based medicine), brief clinical and laboratory case reports, medical progress, expert commentary and novel insights into clinical and academic pediatric medicine related to every aspect of child health.

The Importance of Pediatrics

One of the most important branches of medicine is pediatrics. This is the one that deals with the medical attention of adolescents, children and infants.If you choose to specialize in pediatrics, when you study medicine, you will find that this field is fascinating as well as pleasant due to the fact that children are the joy of life.

This field varies from adult medicine in several aspects. The most obvious difference is that as pediatrics treats young people in all their stage of maturation, they are especially prepared to understand all changes that growing involves. The smaller body of a neonate or an infant is significantly different physiologically from the one of a grown-up. Genetic variance, congenital defects, immunology, oncology and a group of other issues are characteristic of this branch. Therefore, to become a great pediatric, it is necessary several years of training and experience due to the vast knowledge you should have.

Moreover, as childhood is the period of more development, these specialists need to be able, for example, to recognize the difference between common variants and what is essentially pathological. So, if you start your education to become a pediatrician, remember always the smiles of those kids that are waiting for you to take care of them.

Amazing Facts About Babies In The Womb

  1. Unbelievable Growth : During the nine months between conception and birth, a baby’s weight increases 3,000 million times. On average. And this doesn’t even take into account for multiple births.
  2. Babies Eat Before Mom : Much like after they are born, babies eat first. Using the umbilical, they take the nutrients they need and leave mom the rest. This is why it’s so important for a woman to eat a healthy diet during pregnancy.
  3. It’s All About The Heart : Prenatal babies take less than a month to develop and begin using their heart. On average it takes only 18 days from conception.
  4. I Can Hear You : In another amazing accomplishment before the first month of the first trimester, they have begun to form their hearing. Vision and respiratory systems also form.
  5. What Are You Thinking About? : Although what they are thinking isn’t certain, the brain waves of a fetus can be recorded. This usually happens at the 42nd day after conception.
  6. Their first pacifier : Babies don’t wait until they are outside the womb to begin sucking their thumb. In this blog entry, Rambling Madwoman shows you her ultrasound at seven weeks, along with the adorable pictures of thumb sucking and other details.
  7. All Systems Go : Although they are not running at full speed, babies have developed or begun to develop all of their bodily systems before the second month of the first trimester is over. It usually happens by the eighth week after conception.
  8. Womb, Schmomb : A babies chances of surviving outside the womb under intensive medical care can happen at around after the six month period. A prenatal baby that is 26 weeks old after conception has over a 50% chance of surviving.
  9. Their First Cry : While the doctor spanking them at birth might sound like their first cries, they aren’t. Babies can cry at the 26 week mark after conception. They even have taste buds, which might explain some of their crying.
  10. But can they laugh? : The short answer is “no.” However, babies on ultrasound are seen to react to their mother’s laughing by bouncing up and down. This can happen in as little as 32 weeks after conception.

What the fetus learn when he is in the mother's womb?

Pop quiz: When does learning begin? Answer: Before we are born. Science writer Annie Murphy Paul talks through new research that shows how much we learn in the womb — from the lilt of our native language to our soon-to-be-favorite foods.
Annie Murphy Paul: What we learn before we're born
"Babies and young children are like the R&D division of the human species," says psychologist Alison Gopnik. Her research explores the sophisticated intelligence-gathering and decision-making that babies are really doing when they play.
Alison Gopnik: What do babies think?

Baby Brain Development

Interesting facts

  1. The first years of life are the most important in brain development.
  2. The amount of stimulation your child receives directly impacts the amount of synapses that are formed within his brain.
  3. The creation of these synapses are virtually complete after the first three years of a baby's life.
  4. Babies prefer high contrast images and pictures. This is why you see baby's books and toys decorated in bright colors!
  5. You aren't the only one who wants your child to learn. Your baby has an inate need to learn, also!
  6. Your baby's environment will play a huge role in his brain development.
  7. Visual stimulation plays an important role in stimulating your baby's curiosity, concentration and attentiveness.
  8. While toys and books are wonderful stimulants, simple interaction between you and your child is the best way to help his brain develop!

Baby brain development milestones

  1. Birth to Eight Months-He'll learn to respond to the stimuli and noise around him.
  2. Eight to Ten Months-She'll begin to retain specific memories of how to accomplish a particular activity.
  3. Ten to Twelve Months-He'll respond regularly to your high-pitched, sing-song tone of voice.
  4. Twelve to Eighteen Months-Her memory will expand, allowing her to retrieve hidden objects.
  5. Eighteen to Twenty-four Months-He will remember faces clearly in his mind.
  6. Twenty-four to Thirty-six Months-She will be acutely aware of her surroundings, and she will have a widely recognized range of emotions.
Patricia Kuhl shares astonishing findings about how babies learn one language over another — by listening to the humans around them and "taking statistics" on the sounds they need to know. Clever lab experiments (and brain scans) show how 6-month-old babies use sophisticated reasoning to understand their world.
Patricia Kuhl: The linguistic genius of babies

Developmental Disorders

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Angelman Syndrome

Angelman Syndrome is a genetic disorder in which a gene on chromosome 15 is missing or unexpressed. Children with Angelman Syndrome typically have developmental delays that are frequently evident between 6-12 months of age.Diagnosis can be established through genetic and DNA testing as early as the first year of life. In affected children, language comprehension and non-verbal skills are usually more developed than spoken language and the affected child may have few if any words. Children with Angelman Syndrome have difficulties with movement and balance. Their behavior may combine frequent laughter and smiling, an easily excitable personality, hand flapping movements, hyperactive behavior, and a short attention span. Associated physical features and concerns, such as seizures, movement problems, hypopigmentation, sleep and feeding problems, are present in about 20-80% of children who have this disorder. Many educational and behavioral interventions have been shown to be effective in addition to physical and occupational therapies, speech and language interventions, behavior modification, and parent training.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder (or manic depression) is a form of mood disorder characterized by a variation of moods that fluctuate between a manic phase of elation, hyperactivity and hyper imagination, and a depressive phase of inhibition, slowness to conceive ideas and move, and anxiety or sadness. Symptoms may be present from infancy or early childhood, or may suddenly emerge in adolescence or adulthood. Children—whose symptoms present differently than those of adults—can experience severe and sudden mood changes many times a day. For a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, adult criteria must be met through a variety of measures. There are as yet no separate criteria for diagnosing children. Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that can be managed with medication, close monitoring of symptoms, education about the illness, counseling or psychotherapy for the individual and family, stress reduction, dietary restrictions and nutritional supplements, regular sleep and exercise, and participation in a network of support.

Down Syndrome

Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality that changes the course of development and causes the characteristics associated with the syndrome. Mild to severe mental retardation can be present among those affected. Speech and language may also be delayed. The diagnosis is usually suspected at birth due to the presence of physical characteristics such as a large tongue, heart problems, poor muscle tone, and flat facial features. The diagnosis is confirmed through chromosomal testing. The disorder is associated with a lifelong disability but can be treated through a variety of appropriate educational and behavioral interventions in addition to occupational therapies, speech and language interventions, behavior modification, and parent training.

Prader-Willi Syndrome

Prader-Willi Syndrome is a combination of birth defects caused by inheriting both copies of the 15 chromosome from the mother (25%) or by inheriting a deletion of a region of chromosome 15 from the father (75% of PWS). Signs of PWS include hypotonia, global developmental delay evident before age 6, feeding problems in infancy, narrow face, almond-shaped eyes, small-appearing mouth, hypopigmentation, motor planning problems, behavioral problems, sleep disturbances and compulsive eating problems. Diagnosis is made through genetic and DNA testing. Treatments include food restriction, daily exercise, medication, physical and occupational therapies, speech therapy, growth hormone therapy, and special education services. If weight is controlled, life expectancy may be normal, and the individual’s health and functioning can be maximized.

Williams Syndrome

Williams Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder present at birth that is associated with deletion of genetic material in chromosome 7. The disorder is characterized by the following physical features: unique elfin facial features, heart and blood vessel problems, elevated blood calcium levels, slow weight gain, feeding problems, colic, dental problems, kidney problems, hernias, and hypotonia. Children with Williams Syndrome may be excessively social and have developmental delays, learning disabilities, and attention deficit. The disorder is diagnosed by genetic blood test through a technique called fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Treatment typically includes physical, occupational and speech therapies. Most adults with Williams Syndrome are able to complete school and hold jobs. Many live with their parents, in supervised settings or on their own.

Developmental disorders in children are typically diagnosed by observing behavior, but Aditi Shankardass suggests we should be looking directly at brains. She explains how one EEG technique has revealed mistaken diagnoses and transformed children's lives.

Aditi Shankardass: A second opinion on learning disorders

Why TV is not good for children ?

TEDxRainier - Dimitri Christakis - Copiii si Televizorul (Media and Children) subtitrare RO