Mesopotamia

The early history changes our present day

Geographer

Mesopotamia was in the Fertile Crescent in between two rivers. The two rivers were the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia means the land between to rivers. Iraq is where Mesopotamia used to be. It's about 6374 miles and 10258 kilometers away from our school.

Climate

Mesopotamia in the summer are hot, temperatures are from 110-130 degrees. The Tigris and the Euphrates rivers dry out, and the mud turns to dry dust. In the winter it's mostly rainy but it obviously going to be cold so there is snow and ice. In spring it gets warmer and melts the snow and ice, which then flows to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and supplies them water.

Historian

Civilizations

7 Requirements of civilization

The requirements of civilization are

Urban revolution

New political and Military structures

Social structure based on economic power

Distinct religious structure

New forms of artistic and cultural activity

Development of complex technology

Hammurabi laws

Hammurabi's laws are important because it was a fair law it didn't matter who you were, rich or poor, if you didn't enforce them, you were punished

5 laws

5 laws Hammurabi wrote was

1. If any one steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen thing from him shall be put to death.

2. If any one steal cattle or sheep or donkey or pig or a goat if it belong to a god or to the court, the theif shall pay thirty fold therefore; if they belonged to a freedman of the king he shall pay tenfold; if the theif has nothing with which to pay he shall be put to death.

3. If anyone take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.

4. If anyone break a hole in a house (break in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole buried.

5. If persons are stolen, then shall the community pay a Mina of silver to their relatives.

Gilgamesh

Gilgamesh ruled the city of Uruk, him and his friend Enkidu, became bored in Uruk. They wanted to find adventure. Gilgamesh wanted to go to across the flat plains to the distant mountains. Maybe they would bring back wood from cedar forests. Cedar wood was special because, the trees grew tall and straight, timbers could be used for roof beams and doors in temples and palaces. The wood was good for building because it lasted many years without rotting away. People liked the smell in temples and palaces. Now, everyone in Uruk heard stories of a demon Humbaba, he guarded the cedar forest in far way hills. Humbaba was scary, his roar was like the sound of flood, his mouth was like fire and his breath was like death. Gilgamesh and Enkidu were excited about meeting Humbaba. They were strong, and they believed they could beat Humbaba at a fight. They thought this adventure would give them the excitement they wanted. Gilgamesh and Enkidu went out to the cedar forest with supplies to last them week and the weapons to use on Humbaba in battle. When they arrived to the mountains they gazed at what the could see. The forest covered the mountain and the cedar trees grew tall. They stopped for the night, and made an offering to the sun god Shamash. The next morning the went into the forest. They didn't meet Humbaba right away so they climbed the mountain until they reached the peaks, where the air was cold. Finally, they came to place where the good cedars grew. They chose the tallest trees and got the stuff to cut them down. Their axes only just touched the tree, when they heard a horrible noise. They both froze and didn't move, Gilgamesh and Enkidu thought the sound was Humbaba, the demon. Boom! That sudden the demon stood right in front of them. He had teeth like a dragon, a face like a lion and glaring eyes. In a deep demanding voice Humbaba demanded to know why they were in his forest. He had threatened to destroy Gilgamesh and Enkidu if they didn't leave right then. Humbaba made a ugly squinty face, Gilgamesh was terrified and he and Enkidu wanted to stay and fight. They got 13 great winds with the help from the sun god Shamash. They bring in the north, south, east, west, ice, whirl, scorching, hurricane, gale, devil, blasting, storm, and typhoon wind. The winds trapped Humbaba, he cried to Gilgamesh to let him go, he promised to give them as much timber as he could carry. But they didn't believe him, and with one sword stroke Gilgamesh cut off humbaba's head. Gilgamesh and Enkidu cut down as many trees as they could. They tided the wood together and carried it from the forest. They made a raft, loaded the logs on it and set off downstream to Uruk. After reaching the city. People had celebrations to welcome home their king and listened to tales of their great adventures.

Agriculture

Farming

The early settlers planted wheat, barley, dates, and vegetables like cucumbers, onion, and spices.

Agriculture

There was a lot of crops to grow. Mesopotamia was dry and hardly ever got any rain. Irrigation helped because it stopped all their plants from flooding.

Poisoned fields

Poisoned fields led to the fall of Mesopotamia because irrigation water evaporated into mineral salts, which was poisonous to humans. The mineral salts was mixed in the fields where their crops grew, and they ate, and people started dying.

What did people eat?

The lower class ate vegetable stew, fish, apples, pears, grapes,and cakes for special occasions.

The upper class ate the same things as the lower class but because they are more wealthier They ate unleaded bread, milk,beer, and expensive meats.

Steps of farming

Step 1

Flood- before you do anything with soil, you have to flood the field with irrigation water.

Step 2

Plough- after you flood the field, you have to plough the field, to rotate the soil.

Step 3

Harrow- after you plough, you have to make the field smooth and even it out.

Step 4

Sow- after you harrowed, you have to put seeds in the ground.

Step 5

Water- you have to water the field 3 times after you sown it.

Step 6

Harvest- the crops are ready to be harvest, you must pick up the crops and send them to the threshing house.

Big image

Cuneiform

Cuneiform is the first writing system made. It was made by the Sumerians to keep records and lists of things.

This is how you write my name in cuneiform.

Big image

4 Classes of people

1.Priests

They were powerful, they were in charge of making sure people behaved in a way that would make the gods happy. At the time they were also doctors, if you were sick you went to the priests.

2. Upper class

Men and women wore jewelry. Men wore skirts, had long hair, curly mustaches, and long beards. Women wore one off shoulder dresses, had long hair which was braided or put up in a fancy way. Everyone wore cloaks made from wool in the winter.

3. Lower class

Got paid for their labor and goods. They wore jewelry, they had a home but not as fancy as upper class, followed the clothes fashion as much a s possible. There was no law saying they couldn't move up socially.

4. Slaves

They were brought prisoners back from fights, worked for the king, for the temple and the wealthy. Slaves were bought and sold. A slave brought from auction cost less than a donkey but more than a cow.


Ziggurats

Ziggurats were temples. Sumerians believed powerful gods lived in the sky, so the built structures called ziggurats with steps to climb to the top. Formal religious ceremonies were held at the top. People used to bring food and wine on the steps, one of the priests jobs were to enjoy that stuff because the gods couldn't eat on their own. Ziggurats were built in the center of the town, and the courtyard was filled with joyous and busy life.
Big image