Bill of Rights
Rai'Lynn Robertson US History 7th
The First Amendment: Freedom of Speech, the Press, and Religion
Court Case: New York Times Co. v. United States
United States wanted to block New York Times publication, but the government thought it was serious censorship. It was justified only when the government could show, beyond a doubt, that publication would endanger national security.
The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms
Court Case: District of Columbia v. Heller
Some people believe guns are so dangerous that they should be banned. Others believe that guns are the best protection against criminals. The supreme Court ruled that people could keep guns fro self-defense.
The Third Amendment: The Right to Privacy in Home
The Fourth Amendment: Unreasonable Search and Seizures
Court Case: Mapp v. Ohio
Dollree Mapp demanded a search warrant from the police before her house was searched. Police claimed they had one and barged in anyway. Supreme Court had applied the exclusionary rule to the states, finally ensuring the 4th amendment rights for citizens at a state level.
The Fifth Amendment: Double Jeopardy, Self-Incrimination, and Due Process of Law
Court Case: Brown v. Ohio
The defendant was put on trial twice fro offenses involving the same incident. since the exact same evidence was used for both trials the Supreme Court overturned the second convection.
The Sixth Amendment: The right of the Accused In criminal cases
Court case: Miranda v. Arizona
Ernesto Miranda was accused of attacking a young woman. When taken in for questioning, he made a confession. At his trial his confession was not admissible as evidence because he wasn't told his right to a lawyer.
The Seventh Amendment: Rights to Jury Trails
The Eighth Amendment: Preventing Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Court Case: Robinson v. California
The Supreme Court ruled that imprisonment for a misdemeanor was cruel and unusual punishment and therefor unconstitutional. The court decided that drug addiction was an illness, and it was unfair to imprison someone for being ill.
The Ninth Amendment: Right retained by the People.
Court Case: Roe and Wade
Two attorneys who were for abortion used Jane Roe as a case. They argued that Roe's right to privacy should be guaranteed by the 9th amendment, but the government prevented her from making her own decision about her body. Leaning toward Roe's side, people had rights to choose if they wanted children or not.
The Tenth Amendment: Limited Federal Powers
Court Case: Hammer v. Dagenbart
Edward Keating and Robert Owen proposed the Child Labor act of 1916. This would prohibit the interstate shipment of products made by businesses that employed children who were too young and worked too many hours. Roland Dagehart thought the law was unconstitutional, but W.C. Hammer argued that the new child labor law was necessary to protect the public good.