Unit 2 AP Gov.

Ch. 5 and Ch. 8

Collective Bargaining- the process in which a union represents a group of employees in negotiations with the employer about wages, benefits, and workplace safety.

Recall- A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.

Faction- A term the founders used to refer to political parties and special interests or interest groups.

Pluralism- a theory of gov that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.

Interest Group- a collection of people who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence gov for specific ends. Interest groups usually work within the framework of gov and try to achieve their goals through tactics such as lobbying.

Social Movement- A large body of people interested in a common issue, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take action. Movements seek to change attitude or institutions, not just policies.

Open Shop- A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can not be required as a condition of employment.

Closed Shop- A company with a labor agreement under which union membership can be a condition of employment.

Free Rider- An individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence.

Professional Associations- Groups of individuals who share a common profession and are often organized for common political purposes related to that profession.

Nongovernmental Organization- a nonprofit association or group operating outside government that advocates and pursues policy objectives.

Collective Action- how groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives. including how to get individuals and groups to participate and cooperate. The term has many applications in the various social sciences such as political science, sociology, and economics.

Public Choice- synonymous with "collective action", specifically studies how gov officials, politicians, and voters respond to positive and negative incentives.

Lobbying- engaging in activities aimed at influencing public officials, especially legislators, and the policies they enact.

Federal Register- an official doc, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.

Amicus Curiae Brief- Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization urging the SC to hear a case or, at the merits stage, to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.

Super PAC's- independent expenditure- only PAC's are known as Super PAC's bc they may accept donations of any size and can endorse candidates. Their contributions and expenditures must be periodically reported to the FEC.

Bundling- a tactic in which PAcs collect contributions from like minded individuals and present them to a candidate or political party as a bundle, thus increasing the PAC's influence.

Lobbyist- a person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.

Revolving door- an employment cycle in which individuals who work for gov agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.

Issue network- relationships among interest groups, congressional committees and sub-committees, and the gov agencies that share a common policy concern.

Political Action Committee- the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties.

Leadership PAC-a PAC formed by an officeholder that colects contributions from individuals then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties.

Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act- Largely banned party soft money, restored long standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions use of general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of issue advocacy.

Soft money- Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get out of the vote efforts.

Independent Expenditures- the SC has ruled that individuals, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates. When an individual, group, or party does so, they are making an independent expenditure.

Issue Advocacy- unlimited and undisclosed spending by an individual or group on communications that do not use words like vote for, or vote against, although much of this activity is actually about electing or defeating candidates.

527 Organization- a political group organized under section 527 of the IRS code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted.

Ch. 8 (did it on google docs)

Winner- Take- All- an election system in which the candidate with the most votes wins.


Single Member District- en electoral district in which voters choose one representative or official.



Proportional Representation- an election system in which each party running receives the proportion of legislative seats corresponding to its proportion of the vote.



Electoral College- the electoral system used in electing the President and Vice President in which voters vote for electors pledged to cast their ballots for a particular party's candidates.



Safe Seat- an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other, so the success of that party's candidate is almost taken for granted.



Coattail Effect- the boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the President.



Candidate Appeal- the tendency in elections to focus on the personal attributes of a candidate, such as his or her strengths, weaknesses, background, experience, and visibility.



National Tide- The inclination to focus on national issues, rather than local issues, in an election campaign. The impact of a national tide can be reduced by the nature of the candidates on the ballot who may have differentiated themselves from their party or its leader if the tide is negative, as well as competition in the election.



Name Recognition- incumbents have an advantage over challengers in election campaigns because voters are more familiar with them and incumbents are more recognizable.



Caucus- a meeting of local party members to choose party officials or candidates for public office and get to decide the platform.



National Party Convention- a national meeting of delegates elected in primaries, caucuses, or state conventions who assemble once every 4 years to nominate candidates for president and vice president, ratify the party platform, elect officers, and adopt rules.



Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) -1971, limits amounts that candidates for federal office can spend on advertising, requires disclosure of the sources of campaign funds and how they are spent, and requires political action committees to register with the government and report all major contributions and expenditures.



Federal Election Commission (FEC)- a commission created by the 1974 amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act to administer election reform laws. It consists of 6 commissioners appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate. Its duties include overseeing disclosure of campaign finance information, public funding of presidential elections, and enforcing contribution limits.



Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA) - 2002, largely banned soft money, restored a long-standing prohibition on corporations and labor unions for using general treasury funds for electoral purposes, and narrowed the definition of Ch. 8 Vocab.





Soft Money-Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-out-the-vote efforts.



Hard Money- Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed. Raising such limited funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term "hard money."



Issue Advocacy- Promoting a particular position or an issue paid for by interest groups or individuals but not by candidates. Much issue advocacy is often electioneering for or against a candidate, avoiding words like "vote for," and until 2004 had not been subject to any regulation.



Independent Expenditures- Money spent by individuals or groups not associated with candidates to elect or defeat candidates for office
issue advocacy.