Turner Syndrome

Biology Research Project

Introduction

I wanted to learn about Turner Syndrome, because I did not know what it was and I thought it would be a neat thing to learn.

Definition of the disorder

Turner Syndrome is a condition that affects only girls and women, results when a sex chromosome (the X chromosome) is missing or partially missing.

Description of the symptoms

Before Birth-
  • Large fluid collection on the back of the neck or other abnormal fluid collections.
  • Heart abnormalities.
  • Abnormal kidneys.
At birth or during-
  • Wide or web like neck.
  • Receding or small lower jaw.
  • High, narrow roof of the mouth (palate).
  • Low-set ears.
  • Low hair line at the back of the head.
  • Broad chest with widely spaced nipples.
  • Short fingers and toes.
  • Arms that turn outward at the elbow.
  • Fingernails and toenails that are narrow and turned upward.
  • Swelling of the hands and feet, especially at birth.
  • Slightly smaller than average height at birth.
  • Delayed growth.
In older girls, teens and young women-

  • No growth spurts at expected times in childhood.
  • Short stature, with an adult height of about 8 inches (20 centimeters) less than might be expected for a female member of her family.
  • Learning disabilities, particular with learning that involves spatial concepts or math, though intelligence is usually normal.
  • Difficulty in social situations, such as problems understanding other people's emotions or reactions.
  • Failure to begin sexual changes excepted during puberty due to ovarian failure that may have occurred by birth gradually during childhood, adolescence or young adulthood.
  • Sexual development that "stalls" during teenage years.
  • Early end to menstrual cycles not due to pregnancy.
  • For most women with Turner Syndrome, inability to conceive a child without fertility treatment.

Cause of the disorder

Most people are born with two sex chromosomes. A boy inherits the X chromosome from his mother and the Y chromosome from his father. A girl inherits one X chromosome from each parent. If a girl has Turner syndrome, one copy of the X chromosome is missing or significantly changed. Turner syndrome is genetic disorder.
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Physical Turners Syndrome traits!
What Is Turners Syndrome?

How the disorder is inherited

Most cases of Turner Syndrome is not inherited. An error in cell division called nondisjunction can result in reproductive cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes. For example, an egg or sperm cells may lose a sex chromosome as a result of nondisjunction. If one of these atypical reproductive cells contributes to the genetic makeup of a child, the child will have a single X chromosome in each cell and will be missing the other sex chromosome.

The Treatment

Growth hormone.

Estrogen therapy.

How the disorder is diagnosed

Turner Syndrome is usually identified during childhood or at puberty. However, it can sometimes be diagnosed before a baby is born.

Application of research

I learned that Turner syndrome only applies to girls and women. Most of the girls and women are short and have web like necks and they have a a low hair line. They have to take growth hormone pills and have to go to estrogen therapy.
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