General Microbiology Class

BIOL2013-001, Class #: 2697


You are invited to explore the unseen living world. Microorganisms are found just about everywhere on our planet, and contrary to some popular belief, most are harmless, and in fact, necessary for our very existence. Let the adventure begin!


Dr. Timothy A. Kral


Office: SCEN-624

Telephone: 479-575-6338

Office Hours: By appointment using email


Dr. Adnan Al-Rubaye (Dr. Al)


Office : SCEN 529

Telephone: (479) 575-2095

Office hours: By appointment using the UASuccess Program on Blackboard. Please use the following link to access UASuccess:

My promises to you are FAIRNESS, CARE & HELPFULNESS!


Introduction to Bacteria


Microbiology: An Introduction by Tortora, Funke & Case, 12th Edition


Principles of Biology & One Semester of General Chemistry.


Basic concepts of microbiology including diversity, genetics, metabolism, growth, control of growth, pathogenesis, and immunology.


  • January 23 Last day to register, add a course, or change from audit to credit
  • January 30 Last day to drop without a mark of “W” or change from credit to audit
  • March 20-24 Spring Break Week
  • April 21 Last day to drop a full semester class with a "W"


  • In order to maximize learning opportunities, attendance at each class session is MANDATORY. It is important to be on time for each class session, as tardiness tends to disrupt both the concentration of the instructor and the attention of the other students.
  • Class attendance worth 100 points maximum (One exam grade). You will earn 3 points for attending each class lecture.
  • In order to earn the full attendance points, you are expected to attend the entire class. Leaving the class without prior permission will result in losing the attendance grade for that day.
  • Class attendance will be taken using the TopHat program.
  • After taking class attendance, it is your responsibility to check your class attendance and make sure that your attendance was recorded.
  • If there is an issue with your attendance, you MUST report the issue to us at the end of the class to get full attendance credit for that day. Failing to report attendance issues at the end of the class period will result in losing the attendance credit for that day.
  • Each student can miss up to three classes and still achieve 100 points. We strongly encourage you not to miss any class unless you have an emergency.
  • Excused class absences are counted as part of the three allowed absences.
  • Although active student participation in the classroom is encouraged, rude manners and otherwise discourteous behavior will not be tolerated. Students exhibiting such actions will be asked to leave the classroom.

Top Hat

We will be using the Top Hat ( classroom response system in class. You will be able to submit answers to in-class questions using Apple or Android smartphones and tablets, laptops, or through a text message.

You can visit the Top Hat Overview ( within the Top Hat Success Center which outlines how you will register for a Top Hat account, as well as providing a brief overview to get you up and running on the system.

An invitation will be sent to you by email, but if you don’t receive this email, you can register by simply visiting our course website:
Note: our Course Join Code is: 873055

Top Hat will require a paid subscription, and a full breakdown of all subscription options available can be found here:

Should you require assistance with Top Hat at any time, due to the fact that they require specific user information to troubleshoot these issues, please contact their Support Team directly by way of email (, the in app support button, or by calling 1-888-663-5491.


  • Each exam will contain 40 questions. All regular exams will be multiple-choice format. Make up exams will not be given unless there is a valid excuse. The following types of absences will be considered excused: (i) an illness or accident or injury that prevents attendance or (ii) a death in the student's family or (iii) documented university-related activities. All excused absences must be properly documented (e.g., an illness is to be documented with a legible written note from the attending physician, and deaths must be documented with an obituary or a funeral program). It will be the responsibility of the student to tell their instructor that an excused absence has occurred and to make sure that the instructor records the absence as excused.
  • The time to issue questions and grade appeals for each exam ends when the subsequent exam is given (i.e. questions about exam 1 MUST be brought up before exam 2 is given). No appeal will be accepted for a previous exam when the next exam has been taken.


Grading is based on five exams worth 100 points each (total of 500 points) and attendance for 100 points.

Exam I (100 points)

Exam II (100 points)

Exam III (100 points)

Exam IV (100 points)

Final exam (100 points)

Attendance (100 points)

The final exam is comprehensive and optional i.e. if you are satisfied with your grades in exams I, II, III, & IV, you can elect not to take the final exam. If you decide to take the final exam, we will drop the lowest exam grade (not attendance grade). Each of the remaining four exams is worth one-fifth (20%) of the course grade. The total number of points allowed in class is 500 points. Your percentage of 500 points will equal your score and you will be assigned your grade as shown on the grading scale listed below:

A: 90-100%

B: 80-89.9 %

C: 70-79.9%

D: 60-69.9%

F: 59.9% and less


All regular exams will be administered during regular class hours and location i.e. from 10:45-11:35 am in HILL 0202

  • Exam I, Wed Feb 15
  • Exam II, Wed Mar 08
  • Exam III, Wed Apr 12
  • Exam IV, Wed May 03
  • Final exam, Mon May 08, 10:15 -11:15am


- A Scantron sheet number 4521

- At least one No. 2 pencil and an eraser

- Your university ID number


  • For valid excuses (see below) you must contact us BEFORE (preferably), or IMMEDIATELY AFTER an exam.
  • You may only make up an exam if you are absent for an excused reason. The University has a clearly established policy for defining what constitutes an excusable absence. Full details are listed in the Catalog of Studies (also see below).
  • Absences due to illness or personal emergency will require a signed note from the University Health Center or other doctor's office. If it is your child or an immediate family member who is ill, the letter needs to be from that person's doctor stating you were there.
  • In the case of a funeral, you will need to provide a copy of the obituary.
  • Absences for official University of Arkansas business will require a written excuse from the appropriate official.


In accordance with University guidelines established through the Center for Educational Access, instructors will provide reasonable accommodation of special needs for students. In order to be accommodated, you must be registered with the CEA (contact 479–575–3104 or visit for more information on registration procedures). The CEA will notify instructors of your accommodation needs. Please work with your instructors at the beginning of and throughout the semester as each accommodation is needed since some form of preparation is generally required to accommodate you. CEA students will take their tests at the CEA center during the regular class test times.


  • When the inclement weather policy is in effect, faculty members may, at their discretion, cancel their classes. Faculty are asked to communicate individual inclement weather procedures to their students in instances where the University remains open, and when weather may affect travel to campus.
  • If the University is closed due to hazardous weather, then classes are automatically cancelled. The only time nobody is expected to show up on campus is when the University of Arkansas is closed due to severe winter.
  • Students should attempt to make it to class except when doing so could endanger them.
  • Faculty, staff and students can contact the following 2 places for the most current information regarding notification about the inclement weather policy, closings, or cancellation of class
  • The University of Arkansas Weather Hotline (479) 575-7000 - a recorded message giving explicit information about inclement weather will be updated by 6 a.m. on the day in question. Students are encouraged to use the Weather Hotline for information about possible delays and University closings.
  • The University of Arkansas home page- for updated notices regarding closings and changes in bus routes.


We consider our PowerPoint presentations and lectures our own intellectual property; therefore, you are not sell them to, share them with, or buy them from any internet or web-based entity. If you are discovered to be participating in any of these activities, we will report you to our Academic Integrity Office (AIM).


Many types of emergencies can occur on campus; instructions for specific emergencies such as severe weather, active shooter, or fire can be found at

A. Severe Weather (Tornado Warning):

- Follow the directions of the instructor or emergency personnel

- Seek shelter in the basement or interior room or hallway on the lowest floor, putting as many walls as possible between you and the outside

- If you are in a multi-story building, and you cannot get to the lowest floor, pick a hallway in the center of the building

- Stay in the center of the room, away from exterior walls, windows, and doors

B. Violence / Active Shooter (CADD):

- CALL- 9-1-1

- AVOID- If possible, self-evacuate to a safe area outside the building. Follow directions of police officers.

- DENY- Barricade the door with desk, chairs, bookcases or any items. Move to a place inside the room where you are not visible. Turn off the lights and remain quiet. Remain there until told by police it’s safe.

- DEFEND- Use chairs, desks, cell phones or whatever is immediately available to distract and/or defend yourself and others from attack.


  • Browse text sections before class
  • Print slides from Blackboard and bring to class
  • No talking when lecture begins
  • Silence or turn off cell phones and no texting
  • Respect your classmates
  • Ask questions at any time


  • The Academic Honesty Policy is in effect. Please refer to the Academic Regulations section of your catalog of studies for your calendar year.
  • Definition: Academic dishonesty involves acts that may subvert or compromise the integrity of the educational process at the University of Arkansas. Included is an act by which a student gains or attempts to gain an academic advantage for him or herself or another by misrepresenting his or her or another’s work. Cheating on exams, collaboration with others on assignments when instructed to work independently, and plagiarism (i.e. submitting, as one’s own original work, the ideas, words, or works of others) are serious offenses not tolerated by the UA Administration or Community.
  • Refer to the catalog of studies for a description of specific acts of academic dishonesty that would require the instructor for the course to seek action. These policies will be strictly enforced.
  • If you are found guilty of cheating in an exam by the Academic Integrity Office, you will receive a zero for that particular exam, and you will not be allowed to drop that exam. Violations of Academic Policy and Grade Sanctions are reported to the Associate Dean of Students/Office of Community Standards in Student Ethics/ADMN 325/575-5170/
  • There are companies that will try to lure you into selling the notes you take in this class. Don’t let these companies take advantage of you. Selling our notes to any commercial service we will consider a violation of our intellectual property rights and/or copyright law as well as a violation of the U of A’s academic integrity policy. Continued enrollment in this class signifies intent to abide by this policy.


General Microbiology Class Schedule –Spring 2017

1. Science and the Scientific Method

2. Microbiology - general discussion (What is it?)

3. History of microbiology, Page 1

4. Characterization of microbial groups

- Prokaryotes (archaea, bacteria, atypical), Pages 266, 72, 290

- Eukaryotes (fungi, protozoa, algae), Pages 266, 72, 320

Exam I, Wed Feb 15

- Viruses, viroids, prions, Page 358

5. Nutrition (including enzymes and energy), Pages 107, 149

6. Microbial Growth, page 149

- Requirements for Growth

- Standard Growth Curve

- Control of Microbial Growth

7. Metabolism, Page 107

- Nutritional Requirements

- Energy and carbon sources

- Oxidation - reduction reactions

- Respiration and Fermentation

- Catabolism (fermentation, respiration)

- Anabolism

EXAM 2 - Wed Mar 08

8. Genetics, Pages 201, 238


-replication, transcription, translation

- mutation

- methods of gene transfer

- genetic engineering

9. Control of microorganisms

- physical control, Page 176

- chemical control, Page 185

- antimicrobial agents, Page 548

10. Diseases, Pages 389, 417

- terminology

- virulence factors

EXAM 3 - Wed Apr 12

11. Immunology, Pages 439, 468, 492, 515

- Principles of Disease

- Nonspecific immunity

- Antigens and antibodies

- Humoral immunity

- Cellular immunity

- Vaccines and antisera

- Problems with the Immune System


EXAM 4 - Wed May 03

Final exam - Mon May 08