States of Matter

Payton Pierce

Solids

Definition: state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and a definite volume.


Details:

  • Molecules packed closely together
  • Low kinetic energy because the molecules don't have room to move.
  • Definite volume and shape


Examples:

  1. Canvas
  2. Paintbrush
  3. Book

Liquids

Definition: state of matter in which a material has a definite volume but not a definite shape.


Details:

  • Molecules move more freely, but close together
  • No definite shape
  • Medium kinetic energy


Examples:

  1. Paint
  2. Water
  3. Tea

Gases

Definition: A state of matter in which a material has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume.


Details:

  • Molecules are far apart and can move freely
  • No fixed volume
  • High kinetic energy


Examples:

  1. Helium
  2. Oxygen
  3. Carbon dioxide

Plasma

Definition: An ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions resulting in more or less no overall electric charge, typically at low pressures.


Details:

  • Particles have extremely large amounts of energy
  • Can be thought of as a gas consisting of electrons instead of atoms
  • Most common phase of matter in the universe


Examples:

  1. Lightning
  2. Nebula
  3. Aurora

Bose-Einstein Condensate

Definition: A state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.


Details:

  • Einstein predicted this state of matter in the 1920's
  • It exists only at extremely low temperatures, -273 degrees C
  • Groups of atoms behave as though they are a single particle


Examples:

  1. Superfluid
  2. Superconductor
  3. Neutron star