Artificial Intelligence

Cybernetics-Information Theory-Computer technology

Alan Turing

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science that investigates the mental powers of humans which can be captured by machines. Alan Turing (1912-1954) wrote an article about artificial intelligence called: Computing Machinery and Intelligence and he posed the question, "Can machines think?" The Turing Test was developed to answer this question.
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The Turing Test

The test was developed by Turing to determine if a computer has human-like intelligence. Human participants are to judge whether they believe a human or computer is providing answers to questions. The subject of judgement is hidden behind a screen. The computer is programmed to respond as if it is human, and the human is to convince the panel of human participants that they are really human. If the judges believe that the responder is human, and it is actually a computer, then the computer has passed the Turing test.

So Are Humans Machines? Do Machines Have Human Attributes?

Materialsts say that humans are nothing more than physical systems; minds simply cannot exist if they are nonphysical. For many philosophers they believe that a machine can be built to duplicate human functions. Proponents of strong artificial intelligence claim that a computer is a mind with an ability to understand, while proponents of weak artificial intelligence claim that computers only simulate human mental attributes.

Rationalist, Existential, and Humanistic Philosophies

To rationalists and existentialists free will and other human attributes cannot be understood by use of machines; such an idea is absurd. If we view and treat humans like machines, then they may act like machines, and to a humanist this would mean that human nature is trivialized and defiled.
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References

[Alan Turing image]. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20120620-the-turing-test-of-time

Hergenhahn, B. R., & Henley, T. B. (2014). An introduction to the history of psychology (7th ed.). Belmont, CA:Wadsworth-Cengage.

[Human Computer image]. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from http://www.neurosciencemarketing.com/blog/articles/computers-as-people-happy-customers-and-automation.htm