How the Tide and moon are related

by Nathan S Jackson R Preston S and Charlie O

What is a tide? How do they change throughout the day?

The alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and sun.

The tides rise and fall because of the gravitational pull between the Moon and Earth. Earth is tipped to one side as it rotates on its axis, the Moon revolves around the Earth, the gravitational pull between Earth and Moon gets stronger and weaker twice a day. The tidal patterns changes by 50 minutes every day. As the moon revolves around the earth it pulls earth closest ocean towards it.

How does physics tie into how the Moon causes tides?

In physics there are 2 key forces called gravity and inertia. The gravitational attraction of the moon causes the oceans to bulge out in the direction of the moon and the resulting bulge on the direct opposite side of the moon is caused by inertia. Even though the Sun is 391 times as far away from the Earth as the Moon, its force on the Earth is about 175 times as large. Yet its tidal effect is smaller than that of the Moon because tides are caused by the difference in gravity field across the Earth. Thus showing how the Sun and the Moon cause the tides through their gravitational force.
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High tides and low tides

In the diagram above, you can observe the moon's gravitational force pulling on the oceans so that there are "swells" in the ocean on both sides of the planet. The moon pulls water to it causing the swells toward the moon. The opposite swells on the other side of the Earth are formed by the moon’s gravitational pull, the moon pulls the earth away from the water on the opposite side and pulls water from the closest side towards the moon.

Different types of tides

There are many different types of tides affected and caused by different gravitational pulls and locations of the moon and Earth. The most basic are just Lunar Tides which are tides created by the gravitational force of the moon pulling the closest and opposite side of the earth’s water towards it based on where the moon is pulling on the Earth from.

Spring Tides are formed when the Earth, Moon, and Sun are in a straight line causing the high tides to be very high and low tides to be very low. Spring Tides only occur when the moon is either full or new in its cycle.

Neap Tides are formed when the Moon is at the quarter phases of its cycle and forms a 90 degree angle with the sun and moon. Neap tides have a very low difference between the high and low tides because the swells cancel eachother out due to perpendicular gravitational forces of the moon and the sun.

Lastly there is a Proxigean Spring Tide which is a pretty rare and exceptionally high tide. It only occurs every 1.5 years and happens when the moon is unusually close to the earth at a point called the proxigee or when the moon is at the New Moon Phase when the moon is between the Sun and the Earth.