Indian War Smore
By: Gabriel Penaloza Soto
Other Names: Chivington Massacre
Location: Kiowa County
Campaign: Sand Creek Campaign (1864)
Date(s): November 29-30, 1864
Principal Commanders: Col. John Chivington [US]; Black Kettle, Cheyenne [I]
Forces Engaged: Third Colorado Regiment (approx. 700 men) [US]; 500 Cheyennes and a few Arapahos [I]
Result(s): Union victory (massacre)
Estimated Casualties: Total unknown (US unknown; I 200)Scattered Indian raids had caused much ill-will between the white settlers and the Native Americans. In the autumn, Territorial (Colorado) officers had offered a vague amnesty if Indians reported to army forts. Black Kettle with many Cheyennes and a few Arapahos, believing themselves to be protected, established a winter camp about 40 miles from Fort Lyon. On November 29, Col. John Chivington, who advocated Indian extermination, arrived near the camp, having marched there from Fort Lyon. In spite of the American flag and a white flag flying over the camp, the troops attacked, killing and mutilating about 200 of the Indians, two-thirds of whom were women and children.
Red clouds War
Date1866 to 1868
LocationPowder River Country
ResultLakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Northern Arapaho victory
Commanders and leaders
Col.Henry B Carrigton
Capt. William feterman
Man Afraid of his horses
Hump (high Back bone)
Red Cloud's War (also referred to as the Bozeman War or the Powder River War) was an armed conflict between the Lakota Northern Cheyenne and Northern Arapaho on one side and the United states in Wyoming and Montana territories from 1866 to 1868. The war was fought over control of the Powder river country in north-central Wyoming . In 1863, European Americans had blazed the Bozeman trail through the heart of the traditional territory of the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Lakota. It was the shortest and easiest route from Fort Laramie and the Oregon Trail to the Montana gold fields. From 1864 to 1866, the trail was traversed by about 3,500 miners, emigrant settlers and others. The emigrants competed with the Indians for the diminishing resources near the trail.
The United States named the war after Red cloud , a prominent Oglala Lakota chief who led his followers in opposition to the presence of the U.S military the area. He was allied with the Cheyenne and Arapaho. With peace achieved under the Treaty of for Laramie in 1868, the Indians were victorious. They gained legal control of the Powder River country, although their victory would only endure for 8 years until the gray sioux War of 1876. Red Cloud's War consisted mostly of constant small-scale Indian raids and attacks on the soldiers and civilians at the three forts in the Powder River country, wearing down those garrisons. The largest action of the war, the Fettermen fight (with 81 men killed on the U.S. side), was the worst military defeat suffered by the U.S. on the Great plains until the Battle of the little bighorn ten years later
Red river War
The Red River War was a military campaign launched by the United States Army in 1874 to remove the Comanche , Kiowa, Souther Cheyenne , and Arapaho native American tribes from the Southern Plains and forcibly relocate them to reservations in Indian Territory. Lasting only a few months, the war saw several army columns crisscross the Texas panhandle in an effort to locate, harass and capture highly mobile Indian bands. Most of the engagements were small skirmishes in which neither side suffered many casualties. The war wound down over the last few months of 1874 as fewer and fewer Indian bands had the strength and supplies to remain in the field. Though the last significantly sized group did not surrender until mid-1875, the war marked the end of free roaming Indian populations on the Southern Plains.
Little Big Horn
June 25–26, 1876
Near the Little Bighorn River, Big Horn County, Montana
George A. Custer
Native American victory
Battle Of Little Big Horn summary: The battle of Little Bighorn occurred in 1876 and is commonly referred to as “Custer’s Last Stand”. The battle took place between the U.S. Cavalry and northern tribe Indians, including the Cheyenne, Sioux, and Arapaho. Prior to the battle of Little Bighorn in Montana, the tribal armies, under the direction of Sitting Bull, had decided to wage war against the whites for their refusal to stay off of tribal lands in the Black Hills. In the spring of 1876, Sitting Bull and his tribal army had successfully battled the U.S. Cavalry twice.
The U.S. Cavalry was attempting to force the Indians back to their reservations and divided into three columns to attack. One of the columns was led by Lt. General George Custer, who spotted a Sioux camp and decided to attack it. However, Indian forces outnumbered his troops three to one, and Custer and his troops were forced to reorganize. While waiting aid from the other Cavalry forces, another group of Indian forces, led by Crazy Horse, effectively trapped Custer and his men. In a desperate attempt to hold off the Indian warriors, Custer ordered his men to short their horses and stack their bodies to form a barricade to protect them from the Indians.
It took less than an hour for the arrows and bullets of the Indians to wipe out General Custer and his men. Despite having won this battle, the Indians were not victorious. Outrage over the death of the popular Custer led the U.S. government to redraw the boundaries of the Black Hills so that the land would not be part of reservation property, which left it open for white men to settle.
The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890, near wounded knee creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota pine ridge Indian Reservation in the U.s state of south Dakota Major Samuel m with side interceptedSpotted elk's band of miniconjou Lakota and 38 Hunk papa Lakota near Porcupine Butte and escorted them five miles westward (8 km) to Wounded Knee Creek, where they made camp.
The remainder of the 7th Cavalry Regiment arrived, led by Colonel James w Forsyth and surrounded the encampment supported by four Hotchkiss .
On the morning of December 29, the troops went into the camp to disarm the Lakota. One version of events claims that during the process of disarming the Lakota, a deaf tribesman named Black coyote
was reluctant to give up his rifle, claiming he had paid a lot for it. A scuffle over Black Coyote's rifle escalated and a shot was fired which resulted in the 7th Cavalry's opening fire indiscriminately from all sides, killing men, women, and children, as well as some of their own fellow soldiers. The Lakota warriors who still had weapons began shooting back at the attacking soldiers, who quickly suppressed the Lakota fire. The surviving Lakota fled, but U.S. cavalrymen pursued and killed many who were unarmed.
By the time it was over. More than 200 men, women, and children of the Lakota had been killed and 51 were wounded (4 men, 47 women and children, some of whom died later); some estimates placed the number of dead at 300. Twenty-five soldiers also died, and 39 were wounded (6 of the wounded would later die). At least twenty soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor. In 2001, The National congress of American indians passed two resolutions condemning the awards and called on the U.S. government to rescind them. The the site Battle field has been designated aNational Historic landmark