Human Body systems project

Reproductive System Created by: Michael Marbry

Function of the Reproductive system

The reproductive system is a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing a new life. Scientists argue that the reproductive system is among the most important systems in the entire body. Without the ability to reproduce, a species dies.

The basic process of spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of sperms from the immature germ cells in males. It takes place in seminiferous tubules present inside the testes. During spermatogenesis, a diploid spermatogonium (male germ cell) increases its size to form a diploid primary spermatocyte. This diploid primary spermatocyte undergoes first meiotic division (meiosis I), which is a reductional division to form two equal haploid secondary spermatocytes. Each secondary spermatocyte then undergoes second meiotic division (meiosis II) to form two equal haploid spermatids. Hence, a diploid spermatogonium produces four haploid spermatids. These spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa (sperm) by the process called spermatogenesis.

The basic processes involved in oogenesis.  Why is there an unequal division of cytoplasm?

  • Oogenesis describes the production of female gametes (ova) within the ovary
  • The process begins during fetal development, when a large number of cells (oogonia) are formed by mitosis before undergoing a period of growth
  • These cells begin meiosis but are arrested in prophase I until puberty
  • At puberty, some follicles continue to develop each month is response to FSH secretion
  • These follicles complete the first meiotic division to form two cells of unequal size
  • The cell with less cytoplasm is a polar body (which degenerates), while the larger cell forms a secondary oocyte
  • The secondary oocyte begins the second meiotic division but is arrested in prophase II until fertilization
  • It is released from the ovary while the ruptured follicle develops into corpus lutecium and, if fertilization occurs, will complete meiosis
  • The second meiotic division will produce an ovum and a second polar body

Disorders

Endometriosis - Endometriosis is a medical condition that occurs when the lining of the uterus, called the endometrium, grows in other places, such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries or along the pelvis. When that lining breaks down, like the regular lining in the uterus that produces the menstruation, it has nowhere to go. This causes cysts, heavy periods, severe cramps and even infertility.


Symptoms - Pain just before, during, or after menstruation is the most common symptom. For some women, this pain may be disabling and may happen during or after sex, or during bowel movements or urination. It sometimes causes ongoing pain in the pelvis and lower back.


Common - Far too many doctors still believe that endometriosis is rare in teenagers and young women. Consequently, they do not consider a diagnosis of endometriosis when teenagers and young women come to them complaining of symptoms like period pain, pelvic pain and painful intercourse.


Treatment - Treatment for endometriosis can involve pain medication (for the severe cramping), hormone therapy to slow growth of the endometrial tissue and surgery to remove the tissue.


Epididymitis - This is an inflammation of the epididymis, the tube that lies on and around each testicle and plays a role in the transportation, storage, and maturation of sperm cells.


Symptoms - low-grade fever, chills, pain in the pelvic area, pressure in the testicles, painful and swollen scrotum, red and warm scrotum, pain and tenderness in the testicles, enlarged lymph nodes in the groin


Common - Epididymitis is most common in young men ages 19 to 35. It is most often caused by the spread of a bacterial infection. Infection often begins in the urethra, the prostate, or the bladder. Gonorrhea and chlamydia infections are most often the cause the problem in young heterosexual men.


Treatment - Treatment for this includes antibiotics, abstinence, and going to see a doctor.