Chemical Bonding

How It Works

Covalent Bonding

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that shares electron pairs between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding. For molecules, the sharing of electrons allows the atoms have and equal outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration. Take hydrogen monoxide for example, they share electrons with each other, and this is called covalent bonding.

Valence Electrons

A valence electron is an electron that is associated with an atom, and it can participate in the formation of a chemical bond; in a covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

Ionic Bonding


  1. Ionic bonding is the transfer of valence electrons between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond that generates two opposite ions. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged ion, whereas the non-metal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged ion.


Periodic Trends Affects Bonding

Periodic trends affect bonding, because of how the elements are arranged on the periodic table. For example, elements can be arranged by their electronegative, and ionization energy. Electronegative is the atoms ability to attract other bonded atoms.
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