September 11, 2001 was a national day of tragedy. 2,753 were killed including 403 police and firefighters. A plane flew into the North World Trade Center, leaving a huge hole and devastation in it's path. Only six people in the World Trade Center towers at the time of their collapse survived" (http://www.history.com/topics/9-11-attacks).

The first plane hit the North Tower, instantly killing hundreds and left hundreds stranded on the top floors of the tower. Was this an accident? People all over the country watched the live news reports in horror as the North Tower burned and people jumped from the burning building to their deaths. "Then, 18 minutes after the first plane hit, a second Boeing 767–United Airlines Flight 175–appeared out of the sky, turned sharply toward the World Trade Center and sliced into the South Tower near the 60th floor" (http://www.history.com/topics/9-11-attacks). It was then very clear that it was no longer a freak airplane accident, but an attack.

Not only were two planes hijacked and flown into the World Trade Towers in New York, NY, but there were two other planes hijacked on the East Coast. There was one plane that was hijacked and crashed into the Pentagon. Another plane was hijacked and later taken over by the passengers on the plane. That plane crashed in a field in Virginia. It is still not known where the hijackers were planning to crash the airplane.

"For nearly a year after the terrorist attacks of 9/11, workers continued to remove debris and recover bodies from the ruins of the Twin Towers at Lower Manhattan’s former World Trade Center complex."(http://www.history.com/topics/911-rebuilding-of-ground-zero). "Because they didn’t know how many people were trapped alive in the wreckage, firefighters and other rescue workers had to search carefully through the unstable piles of rubble for air pockets, called “voids,” where they might find people who had been unable to escape from the collapsing buildings" (http://www.history.com/topics/ground-zero). Fires burned in Manhattan for 99 days after the attack and the buildings that had collapsed were unstable. Clean up of the area and debate of how to proceed with the site continued over the years. The World Trade Center site was rebuilt as a memorial and it honored the lives lost and moved the country forward.

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Experiment Summaries

Milgrams Experiment:

Milgrams Experiment was set up with having volunteers come to participate in an experiment to see people's ability to learn. There was a volunteer who would answer questions and if they got a question wrong they would be shocked. The other volunteer would give the volunteer answering questions the shocks. The shocks would increase from Severe Shock to XXX (deadly). The volunteer answering questions would beg for the experiment to stop. Scientists would tell the volunteer reading questions when they refused to go on a scientist would say, "The experiment must go on." 63% of the volunteers would go all the way through. This meaning that they would listen to the scientists when told the experiment had to continue.

Robbers Cave:

The Robbers Cave experiment was made to show group basis. There were two groups of eleven year old boys in the same social and economical class that were randomly chosen to be in either group. Neither group was aware of the other. All of the boys were taken to Robbers Cave State Park in Oklahoma. In the experiment there were three stages the first stage was group bonding. They would go on hiking trips or go swimming. Then the boys were asked to create a team name and write it on their shirts. The second stage was to create tension between the two groups. Competition was created between the groups and started name calling, theft, and violence between the groups. In stage three there were situations made up so that the groups would have to work together. The researchers found that the basis toward one group or another stopped when the groups had to work together.


9/11 is like the Milgram's Experiment because the terrorists were listening to an authority. Osama Bin Ladan had been their leader. He told the terrorists to carry out the 9/11 attacks. Like in the experiment when the scientists had told the volunteer, "The experiment must go on." The volunteer had listened and continued to "shock" the other volunteer. The volunteers would listen to authority like the terrorists had. “When the participant baulked at giving the electrical shocks, the experimenter – an authority figure dressed in a white lab coat – ordered them to continue.” (http://vmmoodle.vmbulldogs.com/mod/page/view.php?id=8116)

9/11 is also like in stage two of the Robber's Cave Experiment because Muslims and Americans don't have a common goal. "In an event that a number of conflicting groups are brought together with a common superordinate goal" (http://vmmoodle.vmbulldogs.com/mod/page/view.php?id=8117). Because we are two different groups we have two different group basis. Robber's Cave Experiment because in stage two the boys had called each other names, there was theft, and violence too. While in 9/11 the Terrorists and Americans didn't have a common goal so it lead to violence. "This step of the experimenters greatly increased the antagonism between the two groups. Later on, name calling started and the singing of offensive songs were also observed" (http://vmmoodle.vmbulldogs.com/mod/page/view.php?id=8117). Until we have a common goal we won't be able to get along. An example is after 9/11 Americans would call Muslims names and not treat them with respect while they were in America.

9/11 is similar to both Milgram's Experiment and Robber's Cave Experiment. In Milgram's Experiment the volunteers listened to authority (scientists). Osama Bin Ladan had been the authority during 9/11. He told the terrorists to go and carry out the attacks. 9/11 is also similar to Robber's Cave Experiment because in stage two the boys had called each other names, there was theft, and violence too. While in 9/11 the Terrorists and Americans didn't have a common goal so it lead to violence.