Ideal Gas Law Lab

By: Madi, Christina, Venla, and Robyn

Introduction/Purpose



The ideal gas law is defined as one in which all collisions between atoms and molecules are perfectly elastic. You can visualize it, if help is needed, like a collection of perfectly drawn spheres, or circles which collide but otherwise don’t interact with each other. In this type of gas, all the internal energy is in a form of kinetic energy, but any change in the internal energy is cause of the temperature change.


In this experiment, you will be producing hydrogen gas, by reacting calcium with water. Assume the hydrogen is an ideal gas. You will then measure its volume and compare it to the expected volume form calculations.


If looking for an expected amount of an ideal gas, the relation between it’s pressure of the gas, P, the volume of the gas, V, its temperature, T, and its number of moles is, n, is given to us by the ideal gas law.


The ideal gas law is: PV = nRT


The R you see in this equation is the proportionally constant. This is called the gas constant, and has the exact same value for all ideal gases under all conditions. Thats value is 0.08206 L atm / mol K. Most important, wherever this constant is in use pressure must be expressed in atmospheres, volume in liters, and finally temperature must be in kelvins. Solve for the number of moles of hydrogen gas. One mole of an ideal gas occupies 22.4 liters at STP (which is standard temperature and pressure)

Safety Procedures

To insure your safety while performing this lab please use and follow these safety precautions:


  1. First, make sure to wear closed toed shoes & pin hair back (for girls, and guys with long hair).

  2. Wear safety goggles for eye protection from chemicals/glass.

  3. Please wear your safety goggles, ask your teacher!!

  4. Handle all chemicals with care.

  5. Please follow procedures to insure not only quality results but also to avoid injuries.

  6. Listen to teacher’s instructions, this is not a race to see who can complete lab first!!

Equipment

  • Ring Stand

  • Wire Mesh

  • Graduated Cylinder -1

  • Erlenmeyer Flask -1

  • Beaker -1

  • Flexible Tubing

  • 5 mL of Calcium

  • 5 mL of water

  • Rubber stopper

Procedures

  1. After following the safety procedures, grab one of the 600 mL beaker that was provided and fill it with 400 mL of water.

  2. Then place the water beaker down and fill the graduated cylinder with 100 mL of water

  3. Place the beaker with the water underneath the ring stand.

  4. Carefully flip the graduated cylinder upside down on the ring stand. The water from the graduated cylinder should be in the beaker after you flip the graduated cylinder upside down on the ring stand.

  5. Grab both the flexible tubing and the rubber stopper.

  6. At one end of the flexible tubing place the rubber stopper.

  7. Carefully place the other end of the flexible tubing (the one without the rubber stopper) into the graduated cylinder.

  8. Then grab the Erlenmeyer flask and mix the calcium and water.

  9. Then seal the flask with a rubber stopper.

  10. Record the results.