COMM 324 CLCM Final Project

Overview of Leadership and Conflict Management

Group Members

Zach Bott, Lindsay Barckholtz, Annie Hennley, Evan Shaffer, Jarred Younce

McGregor's Theory X and Y

By Jarred Younce

Theory X

McGregor's Theory X assumes that subordinates "dislike work and require constant management and direction to complete basic tasks" (Gurbuz et al 2014). This style of thinking can be very troublesome due to the lack of concern towards employees by managers. As we can see in the below video, Theory X managers often disregard employees and view them strictly as assets or commodities.

McGregor's Theory X & Y

Theory Y

Theory Y managers are the polar opposite of Theory X and the key difference is the view they have of employees being intelligent assets that can benefit the company as a whole with their unique thoughts and ideas in the workplace environment. Treating employees with care for their well-being instills in them the ideal of their worth in the company and encourages participation beyond the bare minimum. Theory Y managers styles work "alongside followers’ satisfaction with the leader, affective commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior" (Gurbuz et al 2014).
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Gurbuz, S, F Sahin, and O Koksal. "Revisiting Of Theory X And Y A Multilevel Analysis Of The Effects Of Leaders' Managerial Assumptions On Followers' Attitudes." Management Decision 52.10 (2014): 1888-1906. Social Sciences Citation Index. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.

Kopelman, Richard E.Prottas, David. J.Falk, David W. "Further Development Of A Measure Of Theory X And Y Managerial Assumptions." Journal Of Managerial Issues 24.4 (2012): 450-470. Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.

Larsson, Johan, Stig Vinberg, and Håkan Wiklund. "Leadership, Quality And Health: Using Mcgregor's X And Y Theory For Analyzing Values In Relation To Methodologies And Outcomes." Total Quality Management & Business Excellence 18.10 (2007): 1147-1168. Business Source Complete. Web. 9 Oct. 2015.

Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laissez-faire Leadership Styles

By: Evan Shaffer

Leadership Styles and Types: Authoritarian, Laissez-Faire & Democratic

The Different Types of Leadership Styles

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Authoritarian Style

The first type of leadership style is Authoritarian. "With the Authoritarian style, it is more strict and controlling for followers by regulating everything that is going on from following rules and what regulations to abide by" (Aycan, Cemalcilar, Ertureten 208). Besides making sure the goal is completed, another goal is to be an effective ruler, not leader.
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Democratic Style

The second type of leadership style is Democratic. With Democratic, this is known as the most effective form of leadership because it promotes unity. "As well, a Democratic leader creates an environment that is caring and trusting and as well is an active listener with ideas and problems of an organization or company" (Jurek, Scime 107-108).
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The last form of leadership style is Laissez-faire. Laissez-faire is the most ineffective form of leadership out of the three. The Laissez-faire leadership style promotes a relaxed, non-driven and careless form of leadership. The goal is not really defined and causes there to be confusion and frustration throughout the organization or company.


Ertureten, Aysegul, Zeynep, Cemalcilar, and Zeynep

Aycan. "The Relationship Of Downward Mobbing With Leadership Style

And Organizational Attitudes." Journal Of Business Ethics 116.1 (2013):

205-216. Education Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 23 Oct. 2015.

Jurek, Steven J., and Anthony Scime. "Achieving Democratic Leadership: A

Data‐Mined Prescription." Social Science Quarterly 95.1 (2014): 97-110.

PsycINFO. Web. 23 Oct. 2015.

Riaz, Muhammad Naveed, et al. "Avoidant Decision Making Style In Laissez-

Faire Leadership Style And Avoidant Conflict Management Style."

Pakistan Business Review 15.2 (2013): 319-330. EconLit with Full Text.

Web. 23 Oct. 2015.


Authoritarian Photo:

Democratic Photo:

Laissez-Faire Photo:

Group Members:

Zach Bott, Lindsay Barckholtz, Annie Hennley, Evan Shaffer, Jarred Younce

Appointed vs Emergent Leaders

By: Lindsay Barckholtz

Appointed Leaders

  • "Official Leaders" (Carte, Traci A., Laku Chidambaram, and Aaron Becker)
  • Appointed position by a person or persons in power, group members don't have an immediate say in who gets to be their leader.
  • These are the leaders that are appointed to a group before they've met or recently after they've met for the first time. (Carte, Traci A., Laku Chidambaram, and Aaron Becker.)
  • They do not earn their role, they are assigned it.
  • They never have to spend time as equal members/on the same level as the other members of the group. (Sprague, Ralph H)
  • Many don't function well as leaders because they didn't earn their role and may not be fit to serve as the head of a group.
  • Less is expected from appointed leaders than from emergent leaders. (Carte, Traci A., Laku Chidambaram, and Aaron Becker.)
  • More failure is tolerated from appointed leaders than from emergent leaders. (Carte, Traci A., Laku Chidambaram, and Aaron Becker.)
  • Most commonly, appointed leaders are made to manage meetings and not much else. They have not earned the trust that emergent leaders have.
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Emergent Leaders

  • "Unofficial Leaders"
  • Appointed position by peers
  • Emergent leaders earn the trust of their followers by starting on the same level as the others in the group/team. They then work their way up by showing passion, drive, sense, and support for the team as a whole.
  • Less problems occur with leadership between followers and the leader they designate.
  • More on the whole is expected of emergent leaders than appointed leaders.
  • Less failure is tolerated from emergent leaders than appointed leaders.
  • More freedom is given to emergent leaders to lead and make decisions on behalf of the team than is given to appointed leaders.
  • Emergent leaders are given freedom to make decisions, both basic and creative on behalf of their team.
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Carte, Traci A., Laku Chidambaram, and Aaron Becker. "Emergent Leadership in Self-Managed Virtual Teams." Group Decision and Negotiation Group Decis Negot 15.4 (2006): 323-43. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.

Hackman, Michael Z., and Craig E. Johnson. Leadership: A Communication Perspective. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland, 1991. Print.

Sprague, Ralph H. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Hawaii International Conference on SystemSciences: Abstracts and CD-ROM of Full Papers: 3-6 January, 2004, Big Island, Hawaii. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2005. Web. 30 Oct. 2015.


Appointed Leader Photo

Emergent Leader Photo

Group Members

Zach Bott, Lindsay Barckholtz, Annie Hennley, Evan Shaffer, Jarred Younce

Face Saving vs. Face Giving

By Annie Henley

Face Saving

Face Saving is a tactic used commonly in Asian countries to preserve dignity or prestige for one's self. When a person says to "save one's face" it is an expression used to describe the lengths someone will go to preserve their self in a position in society. This has a lot to do with being looked at in a positive way by peers or colleagues. This concept is looked at more in Asian cultures due to the fact honor and respect means more to them than many other cultures. It’s like a social bank account (Cardon 2009). You spend it and you save it and you invest. And when you take away somebody’s face you take away someone’s fundamental sense of security. When you go to china and learn that dealing with people in China is all about face — giving face, getting face, saving face and not letting that person lose face — then you’re all covered. The absolute concern over saving face has truly remained a cultural phenomenon unique to Chinese people, and today it's one of the few social elements left that is still inextricably linked with Chinese traditions that are thousands of years old. Unsurprisingly, foreigners upon seeing face-saving measures in action sometimes cannot help but shake their heads and judge it wholly excessive. When something disgraceful happens that could be harmful to the family name or the family, such as an unruly child, domestic abuse, a uxorious husband etc., Chinese would rather repress their feelings inwardly than speak out, for fear that if others knew that they would lose face, and be ridiculed.

Presentation #22 [Olivia Lucas] Palma 7-31 Google and Saving Face in China

Face Giving

Face giving consists of intentional actions by one party that support another party's image and identity claims. This is different compared to saving face because this involves another person. This face is usually someone who does not want to embarrass the other or put them into a situation in public that would deem socially awkward. To give someone face could be another way to show the respect you have for the person. When you look at face giving in a community type view then it can be easily understood. The “community view” pertains to the amount of respect individuals feel necessary to give to someone else based upon that person’s position or status, such as in a business, the family unit or within a group or friends. For example, status in a Chinese family is divided by very distinct roles; there are even separate terms used to address older and younger cousins, aunts, and uncles. Giving the same amount of respect to older and younger aunts or uncles might be viewed as a serious breach of etiquette. So when you look at face giving through the hierarchy of family roles, when a grandmother gives you face it is a huge honor within the family compared to if your cousin did. Since China runs on a culture steeped with tradition and revering the past it is very important to be seen as acceptable to those of older age. A very big example is doing business and china and wanting to get your product in their markets. If the Chinese businessman gives you face then you know full well you have won him over and gained his respect. I have been to China and have seen all of this play out firsthand and how it is important to save and give face as well.

Face (Mianzi) - Words of the World


Cardon, Peter W. "A Model Of Face Practices In Chinese Business Culture: Implications For Western Businesspersons." Thunderbird International Business Review 51.1 (2009): 19-36. Business Source Complete. Web. 6 Nov. 2015.

Jin, Byoungho, and Junghwa Son. "Face Saving, Materialism, And Desire For Unique Apparel Products: Differences Among Three Asian Countries." Journal Of The Textile Institute 105.3 (2014): 304-313. Textile Technology Complete. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

Robinson, Leslie, Ann Harris, and Rob Burton. "Saving Face: Managing Rapport In A Problem-Based Learning Group." Active Learning In Higher Education 16.1 (2015): 11-24. ERIC. Web. 4 Nov. 2015.

Group Members

Zach Bott, Lindsay Barckholtz, Annie Hennley, Evan Shaffer, Jarred Younce

Humor In the workplace: Benefits

By: Zach Bott

Humor in the workplace is a known thing to everyone that is in the workforce, but most people probably do not know is that, it benefits multiple things which is great for you and other workers. Humor can promote many great things in the workplace as Michael Kerr will explain that having a bad day/stressful is the norm, feeling like when you get to work you can not wait to leave. This is the wrong way to live life, when your not enjoying what you do everyday. Kerr explains that if you put yourself back into the "human race" instead of the "rat race", then you will be more productive, innovative and creative. Kerr explains that if we want to use our most human characteristic, which is humor, so why not use it in the workplace to create a better experience for the workers and yourself.

Humor in the Workplace: Humor and Stress Management


Humor can benefit the work in environment in may different ways including, making people more creative, less stressful, more effective in their work, and promotes good mental health. Humor also can adapt to certain situations to lighten the tension or even relate to people in the workplace. Humor is about timing and should only be used in appropriate condition's around the work environment.
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Smith, Jacquelin. "10 Resaons Why Humor Is a Key to Sucess at Work." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 3 May 2013. Web. 13 Nov. 2015

Jim Lyttle, The judicious use and management of humor in the workplace, Business Horizons, Volume 50, Issue 3, May–June 2007, Pages 239-245, ISSN 0007-6813,

Jour Roth, Gene L.Humor, humor theory, and HRDHuman Resource Development Quarterly Human Resource Development. Quarterly Wiley Subscription Services, Inc. A Wiley Company 1532-1096

PIcture: The Office

Group Members

Zach Bott, Lindsay Barckholtz, Annie Hennley, Evan Shaffer, Jarred Younce

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

By Jarred Younce

How LMX affects organizations

LMX Theory encompasses the unique relation between those in leadership roles and their subordinates. "The quality of LMX is imperative for the employees’ performance as it has an effect on the overall organisational performance" (Lo M. et al. 2015). In organizations where LMX is higher quality, there is significantly less employee turnover, more promotions, stronger member commitment, members have better attitude, and members are more likely to participate.

As time goes on, the relationship between leaders and members is increasingly important for organizations to thrive and grow. High quality exchanges occur when leaders provide positive feedback and rewards to members who put in extra effort to assist the leader in getting more work done. "High exchanges also enable leaders to provide subordinates with trust and emotional supports" (Lo M. et al. 2015). Low quality exchanges occur when members keep to a bare minimum of extra effort and do not go out of their way to help the leader, thus continuing the stagnant relationship they have the with leader.

LMX Theory

In-Groups and Out-Groups

In-Groups are members that work closely with the leader and seek out tasks to help the leader accomplish more work effectively. Out-Groups are members that stick to their predefined roles and never do more than what is required of them.

In the clip from The Office, we see how Dwight Schrute is part of the In-Group by always being there to help his leader with anything he needs done. At 0:37 we see the scene where Dwight is telling Michael he's available for help anytime and through any channel of communication. The other members in the office are part of the Out-Group and only do their required work each day and avoid any other responsibilities.

The Office is a perfect example of how LMX can affect workers due to In and Out Groups through the way it highlights the stark contrast between workers like Dwight who eagerly assist their leaders, and other workers like Stanley who do their bare minimum and refuse to assist in anything extra.

The Office Dwight's Funniest Moments


Lo, May-Chiun, et al. "Examining The Effects Of Leadership, Market Orientation And Leader Member Exchange (LMX) On Organisational Performance." Engineering Economics 26.4 (2015): 409-421. Business Source Complete. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

Newman, A. ( 1 ), et al. "How Servant Leadership Influences Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Roles Of LMX, Empowerment, And Proactive Personality." Journal Of Business Ethics (2015): 14p.. Scopus®. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

Park, S. ( 1 ), et al. "Only Time Will Tell: The Changing Relationships Between LMX, Job Performance, And Justice." Journal Of Applied Psychology 100.3 (2015): 660-680. Scopus®. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.