English Civil War

1642-1651

Hudson Huth


Lauren Smith

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Summary

In 1642, King Charles I and the British parliament came to disagreement over who should suppress an Irish Catholic rebellion, this disagreement led to civil war between the two parties. Both sides mustered up their armies and fought a total of two battles, of which parliament won in 1646. However, King Charles escaped detainment, thus starting the second phase of the Civil War. This was short-lived however, as Oliver Cromwell (leading the parliament's army) defeated the remaining supporters of the King. King Charles I was executed on January 30, 1649. Oliver Cromwell then turned to Ireland to swiftly end rebellion there, and then Scotland where Charles II, the son of the previous King, was building Royalist support. Oliver Cromwell defeated the Royalists, but could not capture Charles II. With the insurrection finally quelled, Cromwell became leader of England for a period of time. Seeing him as too power hungry however, parliament gave the throne back to Charles II in 1660, ushering in the era known as Restoration.

Causes

Irish Catholics felt oppressed by Anglican Church of England. Scotland, sharing similar feelings as Ireland, invades England in 1639 and 1640. October 1641 Ireland does the same. A disagreement arises between King Charles I and the British Parliament over who should suppress rebellion in August 1642. War breaks out over this disagreement.

Battle of Preston

1649 The final battle of the English Civil war. The final supporters of King Charles were defeated at Preston. The king was executed on January 30, 1649.
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Outcome

The Royalist side defeated, Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protectorate of England from 1653-1658. After Oliver's death from malaria in 1658, his son Richard became Lord Protectorate, however he had little political experience or support. Through the 1650's, the English people were becoming increasingly outraged over the execution of King Charles I, the presence of a standing army throughout England, and the arising religious extremist groups. In 1660, Parliament, faced with the poor situation in England, forced Richard to resign and gave the throne back to Charles II.

Significance

  • The line of Stuart was reformed under King Charles II


  • Parliament gained more power over the English people


  • Began the Age of Reformation in England

"WE STUDY THE GLORY OF GOD, AND THE HONOUR AND LIBERTY OF PARLIAMENT, FOR WHICH WE UNANIMOUSLY FIGHT, WITHOUT SEEKING OUR OWN INTERESTS...." -Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell was the commander of the parliamentary forces when he said this to one of his colonels. He was deeply loyal to the parliament and fought for the well being of that body. This quote is slightly ironic however, as he would ascend to ruler of England as Lord Protectorate after the Civil War.