Hepatitis

By Alexander Gruss

Description

Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver.


Acute Phase Symptoms(1-6 months):

  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mild fever
  • Muscle or joint aches
  • Nausea
  • Slight abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Weight loss


Following Symptoms(more than 6 months):
  • Circulation problems (only toxic/drug-induced hepatitis)
  • Dark urine
  • Dizziness (only toxic/drug-induced hepatitis)
  • Drowsiness (only toxic/drug-induced hepatitis)
  • Enlarged spleen (only alcoholic hepatitis)
  • Headache (only toxic/drug-induced hepatitis)
  • Hives
  • Itchy skin
  • Light colored feces, the feces may contain pus
  • Yellow skin, whites of eyes, tongue (jaundice)


A- Caused by eating food or water infected with HAV or through oral-anal contact. Most who contract this virus make a full recovery.

B- An STD caused by contact with bodily fluids infected with HBV, unprotected sex, or the sharking of needles..

C- Spread through contact with blood infected with HCV and sometimes through the misuse of anesthetics. Can cause cirrhosis and other liver cancers.


Diagnosis

A- Blood tests to find IgM anti-HAV antibodies.

B- Blood tests (Surface Antigens HBsAg) (Antibody to HBsAg Anti-HBs) (Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen Anti-HBc) (Hepatitis B envelope antigen HBeAg) (Antibody to HBeAg Anti-HBeAg) (Hepatitis B DNA HBV DNA)

C- Tests to identify the virus. Tests to identify genetic types and viral load. Liver Biopsy.

People At Risk

75% of people born between 1945-1965 are diagnosed with Hepatitis C.

20% of heavy drinkers age 40-60.

10-24% of the population suffers from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.


Hepatitis A:


  • International travelers. Hepatitis A is the hepatitis strain people are most likely to encounter in the course of international travel to developing countries.
  • · Day care employees and children. Many cases of hepatitis A occur among day care employees and children who attend day care. Risks can be reduced if hygienic precautions are used, particularly when changing and handling diapers.
  • · People living in a household with someone who has hepatitis A
  • · Men who have sex with men
  • · Users of illegal drug


Hepatitis B:




  • People born in regions with high rates of hepatitis B infection.
  • People who use injected drugs or who share needles
  • Men who have sex with men
  • People receiving chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy for certain medical conditions including cancer, organ transplantation, or rheumatologic or intestinal disorders
  • Donors of blood, organs, or semen
  • Hemodialysis patients
  • All pregnant women and infants born to mothers infected with HBV; pregnant women should be screened for HBV at their first neonatal visit
  • People who have sex with an infected person or who live in a household with an infected person
  • Health care workers and others exposed to blood products and needlestick devices.
  • People infected with HIV


Hepatitis C:



  • People born between 1945 - 1964.
  • Current and former drug injection users. Even if it has been many years since you injected drugs, you should get tested.
  • People who received a blood transfusion, blood product, or organ before 1992 when procedures were implemented to screen blood for hepatitis C
  • People who received a blood clotting product prior to 1987, when screening procedures were implemented
  • People who have liver disease or who have had abnormal liver test results
  • Hemodialysis patients
  • Healthcare workers who may be exposed to needlesticks
  • People infected with HIV




Bibliography

Medical News Today. MediLexicon International, n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013.


"Hepatitis." University of Maryland Medical Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013.