Nervous & Reproductive Systems

Sensations & sexual reproduction

The Nervous System - the body system that controls sensation and responses in your body

Central & Peripheral Nervous Systems

Central Nervous System - The CNS is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It controls the flow of information going through the body.

Peripheral Nervous System - The PNS is pretty much everything in the nervous system except the brain and the spinal cord. It controls everything from the neck down pretty much, and controls our “Fight or Flight” responses.

Neurons, Reflex Arcs, and the Brain

Disorders of the Nervous System

Alzheimer’s Disease: Alzheimer’s is a neurodegenerative disease in which nerve cells die in your brain. Symptoms of this are impaired memory, confusion, restlessness, impaired judgement and communication, and more. There is no treatment to lessen Alzheimer’s effect, but there are medications to treat symptoms caused by it like depression and sleeplessness.

Brain Tumors: Brain tumors are abnormal growths of tissue on the brain, that could or could not be cancerous, and also could cause other issues to the brain. Symptoms of this could be frequent headaches, nausea, depression, irritable personality, and many more. These can be treated through surgery and taken out, chemotherapy or radiation therapy for malignant brain tumors (cancerous ones), and several medications.

The Reproductive System - the body system responsible for sexual reproduction

Spermatogenesis & Oogenesis

Spermatogenesis: Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of sperm cells. For a sperm cell to be created, an undifferentiated male sex cell located in the testes known as the spermatogonium undergoes meiosis, shifting 46 single chromosomes into 46 sister chromatids, then into 2 sister chromatids holding both 23 chromosomes. Then from here, both of these sister chromatids split into 2 sperm cells, which also hold 23 chromosomes.

Oogenesis: Oogenesis is very similar to spermatogenesis, except it is the production of ovums inside of the female reproductive system rather than sperm cells in the male system. For an ovum to be produced, a female sex cell located in the ovaries known as the oocyte must also undergo meiosis, going through a practically completely identical process as the sperm cell, except in the end there is only one ovum as the product, unlike the four sperm cells in spermatogenesis.

Disorders of the Reproductive System

Varicocele - A Varicocele is an abnormal enlargement of the internal spermatic veins and pampiniform plexus that drains the testis. The number of men being evaluated in a fertility clinic with an existing varicocele is 40%. The diagnosis is clinical, but diagnosis can be supported with ultrasound. This condition is typically graded from subclinical to Grade III based on size, ability to feel or palpate on exam, and visibility through the scrotum. The majority of adult varicoceles are associated with infertility, that is, more than 80%. Surgical treatment is preferred. Surgical correction can reverse testicular growth arrest in adolescents and improve sperm production in adults.

Endometriosis - Endometriosis is a disorder in which the lining of the uterus during the menstrual cycle grows outside of the uterus, and creates a build-up of endometrial tissue trapped around the uterus, which can cause lower abdominal pain and possibly mess with fertility and the urinary tract. Signs of this could be lower abdominal pain, irregular menstruation, nausea, cramping, and more related symptoms. This could be treated through taking hormone medications, pain-relievers, and surgery possibly to get rid of the endometrial build-ups.