TK Magazine

By: Tyler Kohls Published: January 6th, 1929

Roaring Twenties

The goal of this magazine is to describe and show the culture, politics, art, music, lifestyles, and other aspects of the 1920's.

Table Of Contents

Pages

Page 1- Cover Page

Page 2- Table of Contents

Page 3- Nativism

Page 4- Politics

Page 5- Court Cases

Page 6- Scopes Monkey Trial

Page 7- Innovations, Innovators, and Culture

Page 8- Letter To The Editor About Immigration

Page 9- Political Cartoon and Analysis

Nativism

Nativism In America

Nativism is the protection of native citizens against immigrants taking jobs or other necessities. Nativism returned to the 1920's because many immigrants came to America and threatened Americans of their jobs, their way of life, and their livelihood. Americans were also threatened by immigrants cultures and their way of life opposed to theirs. Three immigration laws included the Emergency Quota Law of 1921, the National Origins Act, and the Immigration Act of 1917. These three immigration laws helped reduce the amount of immigrants entering America which led to Americans being able to better retain their jobs and ways of life. The Ku Klux Klan emerged in 1866 to promote white supremacy and were against the rights for African Americans. During the twenties, the Ku Klux Klan were also against the rise of immigrants entering the U.S. and declared them wrong and disliked them.

Politics

Warren G. Harding

Harding was the 29th President of the United States and died during his presidency, (1921-1923), from a heart attack. During his presidency, he supported businesses and tried to limit immigration into the country. He also declared that he would try and change America back to normal after World War 1.

Teapot Dome Scandel

The teapot dome scandal was an oil scandal during Harding's presidency. During the scandal, Albert Fall (Harding's cabinet member), accepted a $100,000 bribe, (loan), and $300,000 in government bonds from Pan American and Transport oil companies to let them drill oil from valuable oil reserves in Wyoming and California. Although Harding wasn't a part of the scandal, it took a massive toll on his health and partially led to his death.

Kellogg Briand Pact

The Kellogg-Briand Pact was a sort of peace treaty between many countries to try and prevent going to war and instead trying to solve differences peacefully after World War 1. At first, the pact was between Aristide Briand of France and the U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg. When Frank Kellogg agreed, it lead to many more countries joining the pact, and an approval from those who wanted the U.S. to join the League of Nations when it was first created.

Political Cartoon

Political cartoons during the twenties explained and illustrated different opinions and topics that occurred during the time. Topics frequently made into cartoons included problems with the KKK, Immigration, Prohibition, the corrupt government, and many others.

Court Cases

Red Scare

The Red Scare was a time in the United States where everyone was fearful that communists were among them in America. The U.S. was fearful that communists were spying on Americans and trying to steal secrets to give to the Soviet Union. The U.S. took precautions from this by making laws that didn't allow communists to be teachers and assigned people to search for communists in the U.S. Government.

Palmer Raids

During the Red Scare, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer led raids to capture and arrest communists along with anarchists and other radicals. The significance of these raids during the 1920s was that they were the height of the Red Scare and things such as bomb plots, race riots, and strikes further made Americans fearful of invading communists or a Bolshevik uprising.

Sacco and Vanzetti

In 1920, a guard and a shoe company paymaster were both murdered along with fifteen thousand dollars stolen. As police investigated the case, they were lead to Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti who were two Italian anarchists. The two were found guilty and sentenced to death even with a lack of evidence and proof. This outraged the World and led to bombings and protests to set them free. The Supreme Court and the Massachusetts Governor both denied changing the verdict. Sacco and Vanzetti were electrocuted on August 23rd.

Schenck V.S. United States

In the court case, Schenck V.S. The United States, a socialist named Charles Schenck passed out flyers to men in the military draft saying that the draft was "involuntary servitude" and that the war was only to support the Capitalist's greed. The Supreme Court made a new statement that limited freedom of speech from the first amendment called, "clear and present danger." This statement meant that some speech was prohibited if it was a threat towards the country. This court case was significant in the twenties because it showed that there were people in the U.S. trying to expose the government or bring them down.

Scopes Monkey Trial

John Scopes

John Scopes was a teacher in Tennessee that was called by the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) to test a new law in Tennessee making it illegal to teach evolution in schools. John Scopes life was forever changed after this trial as it put him in a spotlight for the entire U.S. to see. After the trial, John Scopes went to the University of Chicago on a scholarship and received his master's in geology. John Scopes was significant in the Twenties because he helped show Americans what a very popular court case looked like in the courtroom.

Clarence Darrow

Clarence Darrow was a criminal defense lawyer who defended John Scopes during the Scopes Monkey Trial. Darrow had a very good reputation as an effective defense lawyer. Darrow wanted to debate William Jennings Bryan over the topic of evolution V.S. religion and thought the Monkey Trial would be the perfect place to defend evolution against Bryan's belief in religion. Bryan and Darrow both had very intense arguments and debates during the trial and Scopes's case ended up becoming overturned from a technicality. After the case, the anti-evolution law still remained in effect in schools. Darrow was significant in the twenties because he helped show America what a real courtroom looked like and also established himself as a very credible defense lawyer.

William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan was the lawyer against Clarence Darrow during the Monkey Trial and defended the law against evolution being taught in schools. During the trial, Darrow and Bryan both had intense arguments over the topic and the case of religion over evolution. In the end, Bryan won the trial against Darrow, but the eight day trial was very rough on Bryan's diabetes and later caused his demise five days later. Overall, the country was very saddened by his loss and was remembered by his incredible rhetoric.

Outcome Of The Trial

The outcome of the trial between the controversy of religion or evolution was spread wide across the media in the U.S. Both Darrow and Bryan argued and debated greatly about the issue but in the end Bryan came out victorious. This led to the law where no evolution can be taught in school to be continued to be enforced in Tennessee. John Scopes was only fined $100 but still claimed his belief in evolution and that he would continue to teach it even after the trial. Five days after the trial, Bryan died in his sleep from his diabetes and from his exhaustion from the heat in the courtroom. Overall, the Scopes Monkey Trial was the first trial shown to the entire American public through the media and showed everyone a true glance at what can occur inside the courtroom.

Innovations, Innovators, and Culture

Aviation

Aviation in the 1920s was still at a very early stage. Aviation during the twenties advanced greatly due to occurrences like World War 1 and others. Planes were upgraded from reliability to materials used and purposes. Airplanes were also newly introduced in transporting mail, freight, sometimes passengers, and were essential to the first World War. One major event in Aviation during the twenties was when a man named Charles Lindbergh was the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic from Long Island, New York to Paris, France. Lindbergh used a single engine airplane named the Spirit of St. Louis and took 33.5 hours to fly across the Atlantic. Aviation was significant during the twenties because it showed the world that flight was possible and would open up further avenues like better technology, travel, and sufficiency in war.

Jazz Age

The jazz age during the twenties was extremely popular and compiled the two different cultures of African American traditions with white middle class ideals to music. The jazz age helped create jazz music and intertwined it with dancing. The jazz age was helped to become popular with the increase in radio broadcasting and recording abilities. The jazz age also helped introduce female artists to the music scene. The jazz age was significant during the twenties because it helped show Americans that multiple cultures can come together and be successful and "paved the way" for incoming female artists in the near future.

Henry Ford

Henry Ford was the owner and founder of the Ford Motor Company and invented and developed the first reasonably priced car for the common man. Although by the twenties, Ford had already created the Model T and was known for his development of airplanes during the 1920s when he worked for the Stout Metal Airplane Company. Ford's most memorable plane manufactured was the Ford 4AT Trimotor, also called the "tin goose." This plane was the "first successful" U.S. plane for passengers. The Ford 4AT held 12 passengers and was first flown on June 11th, 1926. Henry Ford was significant during the twenties because he greatly contributed to the development of manufacturing, the newly born field of aviation, and the advancement of American industry.

Letter To The Editor

Letter About Immigration

Dear Editor,


Immigration has been a major debate and a major source of controversy over the twenties. The dilemma is to either let more immigrants in and offer them the help and support they need, or only let a small amount in to try and support the nativists and their way of life, (Americans). If we decide to let most of the immigrants in, then Americans will become overwhelmed and have their jobs and livelihoods threatened by them. Immigrants may take jobs away from Americans because they will accept less pay. Also, if an overwhelming amount of immigrants are in an area, then their way of life may intrude on nativist Americans culture and cause problems and more conflict. Also, there is a large language barrier that separates Americans from immigrants and could cause problems for them to work or coexist together in the same place. Although there are advantages to letting many immigrants into America. One is that immigrants can be cheap labor and can help businesses accelerate and grow faster by saving money. Another advantage of letting immigrants in is more cultural diversity, so America can experience the best in cultures from around the world and become integrated in new lifestyles. Also, America could bring a better quality of life and better opportunities to immigrants to help them. With these advantages and disadvantages in mind, I believe that immigration should be limited because some immigrants may bring good things, too many only cause problems. An over abundance of immigrants brings more problems than advantages and also brings problems to the hardworking American Nativists who were here first. Overall, immigration has its advantages and disadvantages, but in the end should be regulated with limitations to prevent too many complications.


From, Tyler Kohls

Political Cartoon and Analysis

Political Cartoon on European Immigration

Based on the cartoon analysis guide, this cartoon represents symbolism and labeling because it labels America and Europe and uses a funnel for symbolism to represent tight immigration into America from Europe. The issue this cartoon is covering is about immigration from Europe to America and the limitations the U.S. must put put up to not receive too many immigrants. The cartoonist's opinion on immigration is most likely that strict limitations must be placed on immigration in order to control it. (The words, "The Only Way To Handle It" at the bottom). Another person may have an opinion of letting all of the immigrants in America to aid them in finding help, jobs, and a better way of life with no restrictions or limitations of immigration. Yes I did find this cartoon persuasive because it shows that if we don't have immigration limitations and restrictions then America will become completely flooded with immigrants. (Which may lead to unhappy Americans). The cartoonist could have used irony with two separate pictures, one showing flooding immigrants, (how it is), V.S. less immigrants, (how it should be). Also, exaggeration could have been used by showing one American standing y himself in the center of an outline of America. He is then surrounded by immigrants from Europe and Asia with no other Americans in sight. This would be exaggerating that there's a lot of immigrants V.S. much less Americans.
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