London Times

By MacKenzie Hoback

Industrial Revolution

The industrial revolution is the newly developed process of manufacturing goods of all kinds. It was a great change for nations everywhere, it opened up new chemical manufacturing and products of materials like iron. New ways of power were founded such as water, steam, and coal; the development of tools increased highly as well. The beginning of this great period was founded in Great Britain which later moved westward and to the United States.

This was a huge change in history which effected everything in some way. There was a growth of income and the population as well. “For the first time in history, the living standards of the masses of ordinary people have begun to undergo sustained growth… Nothing remotely like this economic behavior is mentioned by the classical economists, even as a theoretical possibility.” Stated by Robert E. Lucas Jr., an economist, arguing the impact of the revolution. Other people however, say the standards of living did not improve until later one since the income only grew a small percentage.

Some inventions that were created in this revolution included the flying Shuttle, being able to double a weavers production, by John Kay, the Spinnign Jenny, a device letting people weave multiple threads, by James Hargreave, Water Frame, similar to the spinning frame allowed the production of yarn to increase, by Richard Arkwrights, and many more creations in multiple fields of manufacturing goods. With the making of all of these machines it not only allows the economic growth for the nation it was created in, it allowed the growth of many nations and many new ideas to form from it, like the advancement from the spinning frame to the water frame. The industrial revolution and the devises created made life easier, and let people produce more manufactured goods at a quicker rate.

Helpful inventions and inventors.

The industrial revolution was full of many inventors, including James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Edward Jenner, and Louis Pasteur. These men were some of the first inventors of this time. In many ways they paved the way for this new age in history and for inventors further on in this revolution.

James Watt was born to a very successful merchant in 1736. Later in life he established an instrument making business in Scotland and soon after he became a high quality engineer. In this time he would repair steam engines, while doing so he saw a way he could make them better. After discovering if he had a steam engine that cooled the steam that had been used in a condenser apart from the main cylinder, it would make the engine more efficient. Working on that discover took many months, and since he lacked money he had to team up with John Roebuck to have some financial backing.

In 1793 Eli Whitney have created the cotton gin. It was used by plantations and small farms to separate the cotton from the seed. It resulted in more successful picking of cotton and cleaner cotton Later on in 1798 he created interchangeable parts for guns. It made guns cheaper because it was so easy to make and use, however the guns were not as of good of quality as they had been before.

Henry Bessemer experimented with newer cannon projectiles. He created modern steel, and the spinning projectile. The spinning projectile was probably his greatest creation. It helped the stabilization of the trajectory of the object being shot. Only down fall was sometimes the invention would explode before leaving the cannon. Eventually the bugs were fixed and it was a very helpful invention in situations of war.

Other inventors that made things to help was Louis Pasteur who helped expand on the theory of germs. Louis was a French Chemist and Biologist who created the idea that germs were the cause of illnesses. Edward Jenner, another inventor who worked with the ideal of illnesses. Edward created the vaccination for smallpox.

Inventions, their effect, and society.

The inventions of the people mentioned before were a huge contribution to the lives of every person.

The creation of the steam engine allowed for faster transportation of people and goods from place to place. It opened up new thoughts for fuel and new ways of transportation. It was a positive effect for the people and society because now they had more ways to get around in a quicker fashion.

Eli Whitney and the positive response in the creation of the cotton gin allowed for easier cotton picking and cleaning with a high percentage of useable, clean, cotton. The amount of useable cotton made the industry of cloth making and clothes go up with the new abundant supply of cotton. Plantations grew and the plantation owners became richer in the new demand for cotton.

The new steel creation and spinning projectile in cannons allowed for people to have more efficient weapons in times of war. It lead people to allow a cleaner shot in war and better tools with this new form of steel. This of course was a positive effect on society and the people in times of war because it gave them a better shot at the other side.

Finally, the benefit of the vaccination and the theory of germs drastically helped the people, society, and the medical field. It made people think of hygiene as a more important habit than it had been before. Cleaner people, along with the vaccination, allowed for a healthier society and more people becoming immune to sicknesses.

In the society during the industrial revolution people became wealthier if they were in the manufacturing business and became more creative in thinking of new ways to help improve things. They became cleaner and smarter in what they did and how. Overall the society had a mainly positive response with the growth of manufacturing and the industrial revolution as a whole.