Cholera

Disease & Cause

  • Cholera is caused by a bacteria called Vibrio Cholerae
  • Bacteria lives in small intestines
  • People become infected by swallowing fruit, water, and some shellfish

Transmission

Cholera is passed to people through water, fruit peels, and some shellfish including lobster shrimp and clams. Though there is no vector most people get Cholera from infected water.

When water, fruit peels, or shellfish are swallowed the bacteria gets into the small intestine where it lives and grows.


Epidemics occur when someone infected transmits the disease into a water way where many people drink or use the water and it then spreads.

Symptoms

Symptoms come in two stages.

1-5 days

  • dizziness
  • nausea
  • anxiousness
After 5 days
  • watery diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • dry/withered skin
  • cramps

Prevention

Don't eat anything raw or drink fresh water outside the United States and Canada. Also peal fruits before you eat, thoroughly cook foods, and take care of personal hygiene.

Incidences & Treatment

Incidences often occur when people travel to or live in developing countries. Outbreaks are also common following natural disasters. There is a vaccine, but it is not recommended. Treatment includes replacing the lost fluids, salt, and nutrition as soon as possible. This is often done intravenously.
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Current Events & Prognosis

The disease really has to "take its course" and the the nutrient fluids just replace what fluid and nutrients is lost.


There have been no epidemics since the 1800's but there have been 7 pandemics and multiple outbreaks in the past 100 years. The most recent outbreaks have occurred in Haiti after the 2010 earthquake. The Haitian and Dominican Republic governments have been working to eliminate cholera in the area. Other small outbreaks have happened in the Middle East and Mediterranean region.

Bibliography

Bunch, Bryan H., and Jenny E. Tesar, eds. "Cholera." Diseases. Danbury, CT: Grolier, 2006. 66-67.


"Cholera." Tish Davidson, Rebecca J. Frey, and Tish Davidson. Gale Health Collection. Online Edition. Detroit: Gale, 2010.



Renee, M. Haiti Sees Spike In Cholera Cases 4 Years After Outbreak Began. Morning Edition (NPR). June 2, 2015.


Peter, G. Cholera Surges In Haiti As Rain Arrives Early. All Things Considered (NPR). May 28, 2015.


"Teen Health and Wellness." Teen Health and Wellness. Web. 02 Feb. 2016.


"General Information." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 06 Nov. 2014. Web. 08 Feb. 2016.