The Sun

Ragan Jones

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Photo found at www.space.com

Sun Layers

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Photo found at www.nasa.gov

Core

The core is in the direct center of the sun. This is where gravity is used to compress hydrogen and form helium. This process creates nuclear fusion and helps to release energy. This energy slowly comes away from the sun and hits earth. The core has a density that is equal to around 150 times the density of water. It's temperature is equal to around 28 million degrees Fahrenheit.


Information found at http://www.thesuntoday.org/overview/layers-of-the-sun/

Photo found at ivansc663universe.weebly.com

Radiative Zone

This layer of the sun is directly above the core. Light comes through the radiative zone before it can move towards earth or through any other sun layers. This, however, can take around 100,000 years because of the high density. It is still incredibly dense despite the fact that it is less dense than the core. As this layer gets further away from the core, density slowly decreases.


Information found at http://www.thesuntoday.org/overview/layers-of-the-sun/

Photo found at www.cora.nwra.com

Convective Zone

This layer sits directly above the radiative zone. As it's name suggests, the convective zone uses the process of convection. This occurs when light is converted to heat and rises, then cools and sinks. This happens in big bubbles called convection cells.


Information found at http://www.thesuntoday.org/overview/layers-of-the-sun/

Photo found at www.thinglink.com

Photosphere

The photosphere almost acts as a crust to the sun, similar to the crust of the earth. It is many miles thick and is not solid. Stars also have a photosphere.


Information found at http://solar-center.stanford.edu/hidden-pic/photosphere.html

Photo found at www.avertedimagination.com

Chromospere

Directly above the photosphere is the chromosphere. Temperatures rise extremely high in this layer. Because of the high temperatures, hydrogen comes across as a much more red color. This color is shown during solar eclipses. Changes in the appearance of the sun are often shown in this layer.


Information found at http://solarscience.msfc.nasa.gov/chromos.shtml

Photo found at buffonescience7.wikispaces.com

Corona

This is the outermost layer of the sun. This layer is very hard to see from earth. It is normally only shown during a solar eclipse. It forms energy in many different wavelengths, and can also be shown as X-ray wavelengths.


Information found at http://solar.physics.montana.edu/ypop/Program/corona1.html

Photo found at solar.physics.montana.edu

Sun Spots

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Photo found at www.exploratorium.edu
Sunspots are areas on the sun's surface that have a darker appearance due to their cooler temperatures. Although they still glow brightly, they are much darker in comparison to the rest of the sun. Very large sunspots can even be seen to the naked eye. They often appear in groups. These spots are temporary, most lasting from hours to even months. They often have two parts to them. The darker area called the umbra, and the lighter region called the penumbra.


Information found at http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/sun/sunspots.html

Solar Prominence

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A prominence is a bright, large feature that comes up from the sun's surface. These are pushed outward from the photosphere, into the corona. These take about a day to form, but some can stay for even months. Prominences are formed from sun's plasma, created by electrically charged helium and hydrogen.


Information found at https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/news/News022411-monsterprom.html#.VyqwJHErLnA

Solar Flare

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Solar flares are a huge flash of extreme radiation that comes from the sun. These flashes can contain particles that can even interfere with earth's way of life, including satellites surrounding it. Most solar flares are not visible to the naked eye.


Information found at http://solar-flares.info/

Auroras

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Photo found at www.nasa.gov
It is said that solar wind can cause the aurora borealis. This occurs when gas molecules erupt from the sun and move towards earth. These electrically charged particles can often hit earth's magnetic field. These gases come together and form the aurora borealis, also known as the northern lights. The northern lights differ in color depending on what gases are combining and often move in a dancing motion above earth's surface.


Information found at http://www.northernlightscentre.ca/northernlights.html