299 - 251 mya

Largest Mass Extinction

In only about 100,000 years, extinction took out the majority of life on Earth. Estimations calculated by scientists are 95% Marine animals went extinct, while 70% of the land animals had gone extinct.

Geography and Climate

This period is when Pangea occurred. Pangea is when all the continents were one big landmass, Earth’s land was incorporated into Pangea, which was surrounded by waters, an ocean, called Panthalassa.

There were many, many glaciers during the Permian time period. Temperatures were cold. Thought the Permian period, temperatures increased, and by the time the period ended, hot and dry climates infected the areas. It is believed that because of these hot climates, it caused a crisis in the marine and terrestrial life. The shift in climates may have been caused by small continents of Pangea.

Land Animals

Synapsids and Sauropsids are two important groups of land animals.

Synapsids had skulls with only one temporal opening and are thought to be the ancestor that led to mammals.

Sauropsids had two skill openings and were the ancestors of reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds.

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This is a Pelycosaurs. This was the earliest and most primitive member of one of the Synapsids.

Insects and Plants

Bugs were diverse in the Permian period. Most bugs had mouths for eating and piercing plants.

There were lots of swamp forests. These swamps were huge, and they were dried out. Plants that depended on spores were being replaced by gymnosperms, which are seed-bearing plants.