All Things Arthropod

Ella Hawes April 9, 2014 PAP Bio Vu-7

Arthropoda

Arthropods belong to the phylum arthropoda and the kingdom animalia. The phylum arthoropda is the largest animal phylum. All arthropods posses an exoskeleton made of chitin, bi-lateral symmetry, jointed appendages, segmented bodies, and specialized appendages. Also, many arthropods go through metamorphosis during development. Arthropods have an open circulatory system. A few examples of arthropods are crayfish and grasshoppers.

Crayfish, freshwater crustaceans, are classified under the kingdom Animalia, the phylum Arthropoda, the subphylum Crustacea, the class Malacostraca, the order Decapoda, and the suborder Pleocyemata.

The grasshopper are classified under the kingom Animalia, the phylum Arthropoda, the class Insecta, the order Orthoptera, the genus Chloealtis, and the species Chloealtis conspera.

Objectives

The purpose of this presentation is for students to learn about arthropds, specifically grasshoppers and crayfish.
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Background Information: Habitat

Crayfish can be found in just about any freshwater area. This includes streams, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Crayfish are not tollerant to pollution so their enviorment must be waters that are not overpolluted.

On the other hand, grasshoppers prefer low brush areas, grassland, and praries. Grasshoppers can be found worldwide and even some cold areas reigons in the north and south.

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Background Information: Predators

Crayfish have many predators including the northern hog sucker, northern water snake, eastern painted turtle, yellow perch, bluegill, largemouth bass, golden shiner, and racoon.

Grasshoppers are eaten by birds, lizards, mantids, spiders, and rodents. Pictured below is a spider eating a grasshopper.

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Background Information: Adaptations

Many grasshoppers have accquired colors used to protect themselves. For example a grasshopper that is green in color lives in grassland that is green. A grasshopper that is brown perhaps lives in a low brush area. Grasshoppers also have a hard exoskeleton for protection, as well as large hind legs adapted for jumping.

Crayfish have many adaptions as well. They have adapted eyes that are located on short stems allowing the eyes to move around. This allows them to see in all directions just by turning the stems. Because some crayfish live in murky waters, they also have two pairs of sensitive antennae that help detect movement. Also crayfish come in a vairity of colors. The color of a crayfish refelcts its habitat so that it can camouflage. Crayfish are well known for their pincers which help bring in food and fight off predators. Below is a photograph focused on the crayfish's pincers.

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Background Information: Life Cycle

Grasshoppers mostly lay their eggs in soil, soft wood, or dry dung. The eggs are layed over winter and hatched in spring. The young nymphs are hatched and resemble the adult besides the fact that they do not have wings yet. Through molting they develope wings and become full grown adults.

Crayfish life cycle begins with the male and female mating. The female lays hundreds of eggs which are held under her long swimmeretes. Crayfish hatch with the same structure as an adult but just a smaller size. Crayfish, like the grasshopper, go through the molting process. They shed off their exoskeleton often. Once crayfish are adults, they will mate and the cycle will repeat.

Disection of an Arthropod

Arthropod Resiratory System

Aquatic arthropods, like the crayfish, posess gills for respiration. The gills are located in between the carapace (the exoskeleton of the cephalothorax) and the lateral body wall, in the branchial chamber. Grasshoppers' respiratory system is called the tracheal system. It involves the diffusion of oxygen directly from the atmosphere into the air-filled tubes. This system has 10 spiracles (2 pairs are thoracic and 8 pairs are abdominal).
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A Noteworthy Arthropod: featuring Mr. Crab

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