Chapter 16-Chemistry Way Below Zero
Sn - Tin
Atomic Number - 50
Mass - 118.710
Period/group - period 5, group 14
Electron configuration - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p2
Classified in other metals.
Tin is naturally occurring in Malaysia, and it is often found with the mineral cassiterite (from which it is then extracted)(Gagnon, n.d.).
It is used to make glass window panes, and used to line cans.
Tin doesn’t rust, which opens it up to be used in many other ways. It is also known for the Tin scream - caused by extreme temperatures that cause the metal to become weaker (chap.16, pg. 145).
The exact time and discoverer of tin is unknown. References of the element go back to Biblical times.
Ar - Argon
Atomic Number - 18
Mass - 39.948
Period/Group - period 3, group 18
Electron Configuration - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
Classified as a Noble Gas.
Argon is naturally occurring and is found in the atmosphere.
Argon is used as a protective “layer” in lightbulbs, and keeps other gases out during a certain form of welding.
The word “argon” comes from “Argos” which means inactive.
This element was discovered by Sir William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh in 1894. (Gagnon, n.d.)
“Argon wears the title belt for the single hardest element humans have forced into a compound” (chap 16, pg, 146). The compound serves no natural purpose and can only exist in solid form at extremely low temperatures.
Nd - Neodymium
Atomic Number - 60
Mass - 144.242
Period/Group - period 6 (no group)
Electron Configuration - 1s2 2s2 2p63s2 3p6 3d104s2 4p6 4d10 4f4 5s2 5p6 6s2
Classified as a rare earth metal.
This element was extracted from another- didymium.
It is used in the making of welders goggles, some types of glass, when in mischmetal, it is used in lighters. (Gagnon, n.d.)
Neodymiums name comes from greek words that mean “new twin”.
This element was discovered by Carl F. Auer von Welsbach in the year 1885.
Nd can be used in a certain kind of glass to create colors! (Gagnon, n.d.)
Rb - Rubidium
Atomic Number - 37
Mass - 85.4678
Period/Group - period 5, group 1
Electron Configuration - 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 5s1
Classified as an alkali metal.
Often found inside the mineral Lepidolite, which is common and found all across the world.
Rubidium can be used in vacuum cleaners, glasses, and possibly spacecrafts. Rubidiums full potential is yet to be discovered, as they believe it has many other uses beyond these that are listed. (Gagnon, n.d.)
This element was discovered by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in the year of 1861, and is named after a latin word that means “deepest red”.
Rubidium is known to be in many compounds, but nearly all of them have no good use! (Gagnon, n.d.)
Why They Matter!
Gagnon, S. (n.d.) The Element Tin. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele050.html
Gagnon, S. (n.d.) The Element Argon. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele018.html
Gagnon, S. (n.d.) The Element Neodymium. Retrieved from http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele060.html
Gagnon, S. (n.d.) The Element Rubidium. Retrieved from