Johnson´s Plan

Kelly Zhang

Overview of Johnson´s plan

To continue the reconstruction in the United States, President Andrew Johnson proposed every state to repeal its secession and take the oath of allegiance to the Union. It also ratified the 13th Amendment and refused to give pardon to high-ranking or owing property over $20,000 confederates.

Freedmen's Bureau

Freedmen's Bureau was a temporary agency that helped former black slaves and poor whites in the south after the destructions of the war. It provided food, housing medical-aid, and education.

Andrew Johnson opposed the Bureau and denied the legal powers of the Bureau since it interfered with states' rights and caused caused burdens on federal finance.

Civil Rights Act of 1866

The Civil Rights Act pronounced that all people who were born in the United States are citizens of the United States, which implied that all African American were granted the U.S. citizenships.

Though Johnson disagreed with the Civil Rights Bill, the Congress overrode his veto.

Black codes

Black codes referred to laws passed by Southern states, which severely limited the freedoms of African American. In the Black codes of South Carolina, blacks were forced to sign labor contracts, prohibited to marry whites and carry weapons, and separated from whites court system.

Life of the freed slaves after the civil war

After the Civil War, the life for the freed slaves actually became even harder. Most of the Southern blacks left the plantations without any money and education, which limited their opportunities to have a position in the society. They had to work for white "masters" with low wages and lacked of health care services. Even though they were officially free, a lot of people still remained hostile towards coloured people.