Language Arts 6th Grade

What I learned this year: Jeanne Myers

Chapter 1: The Sentence

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought.

Example: I wore a blue skirt to school yesterday.

The Subject

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

Example: Marcus is my best friend. (Marcus is the subject)

Complete and Simple Subject

The complete subject consists of all the words needed to tell whom or what the sentence is about. The simple subject is part of the complete subject.


The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about.

Ex: A big yellow bird was on my window.

A big yellow bird is the complete subject.

bird is the simple subject.

The Predicate

The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

Ex: I ran a race on Saturday. (The predicate is ran a race)

Complete Predicate and Simple Predicate

The complete predicate consists of a verb and all the words that describe the verb and its complete meaning.

A simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or word group in the complete predicate.

Ex: The lady picked up the child carefully.

Complete Predicate: picked up the child carefully

Simple Predicate (verb): picked

Compound Subject

A compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.

Ex: Soccer, baseball, and volleyball are my favorite sports. (Soccer, baseball ,and volleyball is the compound subject)

Compound Verb

A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.

Ex: My friend is always singing and dancing.

(singing and dancing is the compound verb)

Declarative Sentence

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.

Ex: I go to Sts.Peter and Paul Catholic School.

This sentence is giving a statement, or fact, not an opinion which would make it not a declarative sentence.

Imperative Sentence

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentences end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point.

Ex: Go wash the dishes please.

Clean your room!

Interrogative Sentence

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.

Ex: Did you make that mess?

Exclamatory Sentence

An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamation point.

Ex: I won the race!

Chapter 2: Parts of Speech

The Noun

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea.

Ex: Jeffery went to the museum. (Jeffery is the noun or person in the sentence)

(museum is also a noun because it is a place)

Proper Nouns and Common Nouns

A proper noun names a particular person, place, thing, or idea and begins with a capital letter. A common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas. It is usually not capitalized.

Example of proper noun: William left the house. (WIlliam is the proper noun)

Example of common noun: The students had a field trip. (students is the common noun)

The Pronoun

A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

Ex: She had a soda. (she is the pronoun)

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking, the one spoken to, or the one spoken about. Personal pronouns have both singular and plural forms.

Ex: Did you see my suitcase anywhere?

Possessive Pronouns

The possessive pronouns- my, mine, our, ours, your, yours, her, hers, his, its, their, and theirs- are personal pronouns that are used to show ownership or possession.

Ex: Is that book mine or yours. (mine or yours is the possessive pronoun)

Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

A reflexive pronoun refers to the subject and is necessary to the basic meaning of the sentence. An intensive pronoun emphasizes its antecedent and is unnecessary to the basic meaning of the sentence.

Example of reflexive: We enjoyed ourselves when we went swimming.

Example of intensive: I will be introduced by the coach himself.

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points out a specific person, place, thing, or idea.

Ex: Are those his shoes?

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place, thing, or an idea that may or may not be specifically named.

Ex: Everyone in our class was going to get ice cream.

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun introduces a question.

Ex: Which car should I buy?

Relative Pronoun

A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause.

Ex: Robins are among the birds that migrate south.

The Adjective

An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or a pronoun.

Ex:I wore a blue skirt on Wednesday.

Proper Adjectives

A proper adjective is formed from a proper noun and begins with a capital letter.

Ex: Northern Louisiana

Demonstrative Adjectives

This, that, these, and those can be used both as adjectives and as pronouns. When they modify nouns or pronouns, they are called demonstrative adjectives. When they are used alone, they are called demonstrative pronouns.

Ex: I want that. (pronoun)

or: I want that kind of burger. (adjective)

Chapter 3: Parts of Speech Overview

The Verb

a verb is is an action that expresses or a state of being.

Ex: The girl ran away.

Main Verbs and Helping Verbs

In many sentences, a single word is all that is needed to express the action or state of being.

Ex: The girl ran the whole marathon.


In other sentences, the verb consists of the main verb and one or more helping verbs.

A helping verb helps the main verb to express action or state of being.

Ex: She will learn to ride her bike some day soon.

Action Verbs

An action verb expresses either physical or mental activity.

Ex: I cooked the stew we are all enjoying.

Linking Verbs

A linking verb connects or links the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject.

Ex: The new school is building a new gym.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or idea. With transitive verbs, the action passes from the doer-the subject- to the receiver of the action. Words that receive the action of a transitive verb are called its objects.

Ex: I cooked the bacon.


An intransitive verb tells something about the subject or expresses action without the action passing to a receiver, or object.

Ex: The boat left.

The Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Ex: She quickly got out of the water.

The Preposition

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence.

Ex: I stood beside her.

The Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase has at least one noun or pronoun as an object. This noun or pronoun is called the object of the preposition. The preposition, its object, and any modifiers of the object make up a prepositional phrase. Generally, the object of the preposition follows the preposition.

Ex: I went swimming at the pool with her.

Preposition or Adverb????

Some words may be used as both prepositions and adverbs. Remember that a preposition always has at least one noun or pronoun as an object. An adverb never does. If you can't tell whether a word is used as a preposition or an adverb, look for an object.

Ex: PREPOSITION: Along the wall were a bunch of pictures.

Ex: ADVERB: The pictures were above.

The Conjunction

A conjunction is a word that joins words or groups of words.

Ex: Do you want to go to the mall or the toy store?

The Interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.

Ex: Hey! I missed you!

Determining Parts of Speech.

The way a word is used in the sentence determines what part of speech it is.

Ex: I like all of my toys. (Verb)

I can run quickly to the other side of the field. (adverb)

Well, I'm glad we got to see each other again. (interjection)

Chapter 4: The Phrase and the Clause

The Phrase

A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject.

Ex: was in the backyard (no subject)

at the gym (no subject or verb)

Prepositional Phrases

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

Ex: All of the students had fun at recess.

Adjective Phrases

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

Ex: Large carving of wood went flying everywhere.

Adverb Phrases

A prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.

Ex: We walked through the water to the shore at noon.

The Clause

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

Independent Clause

A independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

Ex: I ran the whole race.

Subordinate Clause

A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

Ex: before we leave

Adjective Clauses

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

Ex: a dog that is brown

Adverb Clauses

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.

Ex: Since the dog was new, it was scared and whimpered a lot.

Sentence Structure: Simple Sentences

A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.

Ex: The little girl was good at juggling.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and a connecting word.

Ex: We went to see a move, but it wasn't that good.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

Ex: Before we left for our trip, we had to plan it for the week.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause is a compound- complex sentence.

Ex: We watched a movie, and we ate popcorn while sitting in a pool.

Chapter 5: Complements

Recognizing Complements

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.

Ex: I found my purse in the living room.

Objects of Verbs

Direct objects and indirect objects complete the meaning of transitive verbs.

Direct Objects

A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Ex: I saw a horse.

Indirect Objects

An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that usually comes between the verb and the direct object. An indirect object tells to whom or to what or for whom or for what the action of the verb is done.

I gave her my doll.

Subject Complements

A subject complement is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.

Ex: She is a very nice lady.

Predicate Nominatives

A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

Ex: The winner was I.

Predicate Adjectives

A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

Ex: I was very sleepy.

Chapter 6: Agreement

Number

Words that refer to one person, place, thing, or idea are generally singular in number. Words that refer to more than one person, place, thing, or idea are generally plural in number.

Ex: (SINGULAR) The soccer ball was kicked into the bushes.

Ex: (PLURAL) The soccer balls were kicked into the bushes.

Agreement of Subject and Verb

A verb should agree in number with its subject.

Ex: The boy plays soccer like a pro.

Problems in Agreement: Phrases Between Subject and Verb

The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.

Ex: The dog with white hair is good at tricks.

Indefinite Pronouns

Personal pronouns refer to specific people, places, things, or ideas. A pronoun that does not refer to a definite person, place, thing, or idea is called an indefinite pronoun.

Ex: One of the students is my best friend.

Compound Subjects

A compound subject is made up of two or more subjects that are connected by the conjunction and, or, or nor. These connected subjects share the same verb.

Ex: Soccer and volleyball are my favorite sports.

Subject After the Verb

When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.

Ex: Sally had a lot of fun playing tag.

The contractions Don't and Doesn't

The word don't is the contraction of do not. Use don't with all plural subjects and with the pronouns I and you.

Ex: I don't have any money.

The word doesn't is the contraction of does not. use doesn't with all singular subjects except the pronouns I and you.

Ex: She doesn't have a lot of pizza left on her plate.

Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent

A pronoun should agree in gender with its antecedent.

Ex: The girl likes to wear her new bathing suit.

Chapter 7: Using Verbs Correctly

Principal Parts of Verbs

The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.

Ex: (PRESENT) The teacher has been setting up her new classroom all day.

(PAST) I jumped a lot today.

(FUTURE) I will finish my noted tonight.

Regular Verbs

A regular verb forms its past and present participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Ex: Jump-jumped-is jumping

Irregular Verbs

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

Ex: win-won-have won

Tense

The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or the state of being that is expressed by the verb.

Ex: (PAST) Jumped

(Present) jump

(FUTURE) will jump

Progressive Forms

Each of the six tenses also has a form called the progressive form. The progressive form expresses continuing action or state of being. It is made up of the appropriate tense of the verb be plus the present participle of a verb.

Ex: Present Progressive- am, are is wearing

The Verb Be

The verb be is the most irregular of all the irregular verbs in English. Note that many different forms of be in the following conjugation.

Ex: is being, were being.

Consistency of Tense

Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.

Ex: The little girl leapt off the table and grabbed some cookies.

Sit and Set

The verb sit means "to be seated" or "to rest." Sit seldom takes a direct object. The verb set means "to put in a place." Set usually takes a direct object. Notice that set has the same form for the base form, past, and past participle.

Ex: I am sitting on my cozy chair.

I am setting my plate on my cozy chair.

Rise and Raise

The verb rise means "to go up" or "to get up." Rise does not take a direct object. The verb raise means "to lift up" or "to cause to rise." Raise usually takes a direct object.

Ex: We raised our hands in the air when the team scored.

We rose out of the stands when the other team scored.

Lie and Lay

The verb lie generally means "to recline," "to be in place," or "to remain lying down." Lie does not take a direct object. The verb lay means "to put down" or "to place." Lay usually takes a direct object.

Ex: I will lie down when I get home.

I like to lay my computer softly on my desk.

Chapter 8: Using Pronouns Correctly

The Forms of Personal Pronouns

The form of a personal pronoun shows how it can be used in a sentence. Pronouns used as subjects and predicate nominatives are in the subject form.

Ex: We went to the mall. (subject.

The winner was she. (predicate nominative)

Pronoun as Subject

Use the subject form for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb.

Ex: They left the house to go to the mall.

Pronoun as Predicate Nominative

Use the subject form for a pronoun that is a predicate nominative.

Ex: The winner was she.

Pronoun as Direct Object

Use the object form for a pronoun that is the direct object of a verb.

Ex: The party surprised her.

Pronoun as Indirect Object

Use the object form for a pronoun that is the indirect object of a verb.

Ex: Sara gave me a hug.

Pronoun as Object of Preposition

Use the object form for a pronoun that is the object of a preposition.

Ex: Above us

Who and Whom

The pronoun who has two different forms. Who is the subject form. Whom is the object form.

Ex: Who is this book for?

To whom did Michael give this book to?

Pronouns with Appositives

Sometimes a pronoun is followed directly by a noun that identifies the pronoun. Such a noun is called an appositive.

Ex: We, students love fun activities.

Chapter 9: Using Modifiers Correctly

What is a Modifier?

A modifier is a word, phrase, or a clause that makes the meaning of a word or a word group more specific. The two kinds of modifiers are adjectives and adverbs.

One-Word Modifiers

Adjectives make the meaning of nouns and pronouns more specific.

Ex: The beach was beautiful.

Adverbs

Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.

Ex: She ran through the race quickly.

Phrase Used as Modifiers

Like one-word modifiers phrases can be used as adjectives or adverbs.

Ex: The car with the great polishing is on sale for $60,000.

Clauses Used as Modifiers

Like words and phrases, clauses can also be used as modifiers.

Ex: Before I went to soccer practice, I had to pack up my suitcase.

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

Ex: good (Positive

better (comparative)

best (superlative)

Regular Comparison

Most one syllable modifiers form the comparative degree by adding -er and the superlative degree by adding -est.

Ex: Near-nearer-nearest

Decreasing Comparison

To show a decrease in the qualities they express, modifiers form the comparative degree by using less and the superlative degree by using least.

Ex: tidy-less tidy-least tidy

Irregular Comparison

Some modifiers do the form their comparative and superlative degrees by using the regular methods.

Ex: good-better-best

Special Problems Using Modifiers

The modifiers good and well have different uses.

Ex: We had a good trip this year.

My friend wasn't feeling well at recess.

Double Negatives

Negative words are a common part of everyday speaking and writing. These words include the modifiers no, not, never, and hardly. Notice how negative words change the meaning of the following sentences.

Ex: We always ride horses.

We never ride our horses.


Avoid using double negatives.

A double negative is the use of two or more negative words to express one negative idea.

Ex: I hardly never eat those.

(SHOULD BE) I hardly ever eat those.

Placement of Modifiers

Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.

Ex: The soccer player from Germany got kicked off the team.

Adjectives and Adverbs

The placement of an adjective or adverb may affect the meaning of a sentence. Avoid placing an adjective or adverb so that it appears to modify a word that you didn't mean it to modify.

Ex: Tomorrow we will go to see my aunt.

We will go see my aunt tomorrow.

Prepositional Phrases

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

Ex: In the pool, we played Marco Polo.

Adjective Clauses

An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. Most adjective clauses begin with a relative pronoun- that, which, who, whom, or whose.

Ex: I gave my friends a ball that I made.