Influenza Virus

By: Sidney Steinsberger

Symptoms and Effects

The effects include

  • fever over 100
  • aching muscles
  • sweats and chills
  • headaches
  • dry, persistent cough
  • fatigue and weakness
  • nasal congestion
  • sore throat

Flu Causes and Risk Factors

The flu is air-born, so you can get it when someone infected coughs, sneezes, or puts their mouth on something. You can also get it when you touch anything that's when exposed to the virus. The risk factors age, living conditions, weak immune system, asthma, diabetes, heart problems, pregnancy, or obesity.

This Virus can be treated by taking medicines such as Tamiflu, Relenza, or Oseltamivir along with lots of rest and fluids.

Wash your hands before touching your face!

Immune Cells

TLR cells inform the cell if there is a virus present. When a cell gets infected by the influenza virus, innate response molecules build a wall to slow down the virus. Then, two responses are sent out, the innate response and the adaptive response. The innate response stops the virus from replicating. The adaptive response sends out antibodies to stop the virus from infecting the lungs and respiratory area. The natural killing cell aka T cell provides protection while it tries to kill off the virus. Cytokines are also secreted and try to fight off the virus. Other cells, such as B cells, neutralize the virus. CD8 and CD4 cells bind to the virus while CTL cells kill the virus. NK cells are another type of white blood cells that kill off the virus. Mast cells help with protecting the cells.
Big image


In order to prevent from getting the virus, you should avoid close contact with an infected person, stay home when your sick, cover your mouth and nose, clean your hands, don't touch your nose or mouth or eyes, and practice good habits.

Replication of Influenza

The influenza virus's main targets are skin cells in the upper and lower respiratory tract. The first step is the virus connecting to an acid receptor in order to get to the membrane. Then, the second step is the cell's membrane absorbing the virus. After that, the cell gets delivered to the endosomes in step four and gets broken down. Unfortunately, the virus's genetic material make it out. The virus then goes out of the endosomes and is delivered to the cell's nucleus. In result, the cell replicates the virus's RNA. When the virus has finished replicating, all the new viruses permeates the cell’s membrane, killing the cell, to find another host. This cycle is called the Lysogenic cycle.

Big image