Respiratory System

By Charlie Taylor

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Respiratory system

Pass-

The respiratory system is when we inspire. We take in 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.96%argon and 0.04% carbon dioxide. This goes through the pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and then the alveoli. This is where gaseous exchange happens. The gases leaving the alveoli's is at a high oxygen concentration and this enters into the capillaries and goes to the muscles. The gases then from the capillaries goes into the alveoli and this is at a high concentrate of carbon dioxide. This then travels back up through the bronchioles, bronchus, trachea, larynx, epiglottis and pharynx. So then when you expire 78% nitrogen, 14% oxygen, 4% carbon dioxide and 1% argon.

Inspiration:

To take air into our lungs, the volume of thoracic cavity must increase. This happens because the Intercostal muscles and the diaphragm contract. The rib cage moves up and out and the diaphragm flattens to increase the space. This decreases the air pressure within our lungs, causing air to rush in from outside.

Expiration:

At the end of a breath, the intercostal muscles and diaphragm relax. This makes them return to their starting position. This the decreases the size of the thoracic cavity. The decreased space and increased air pressure in the lungs forces air out.

Lung Capacity

Our lungs can hold lots of different amounts of air. It all depends on how hard and fast we breathe. The lungs are also never empty, even if you breathe out as far as you can.

Tidal volume -

The amount of air you breathe in or out with each breath

Inspiratory capacity -

The maximum amount you can breathe in (after a normal breath out)

Expiratory reserve volume -

After breathing our normally, this is the extra amount you can breathe out

Vital capacity -

The maximum amount of air you could possibly breathe in or out in one breath

Residual volume -

The amount of air left in your lungs after you have breathed out as much as possible


Controling of breathing: their are two types;

Chemical Control-

There are chemoreceptors in the brain and the heart that sense the amount of oxygen, and carbon dioxide thats in the body. They sent message to the body to conrol the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide to make sure they are balanced and that their is no problems with the breathing.

Neural Control-

There are two neural mechanisms that govern respiration. This means you have to breathe on your own acord. As it is voluntery this means you choose when you breathe meaning you have to contol it.


Merit-

The respiratory system is when we inspire. We take in 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.96%argon and 0.04% carbon dioxide. This goes through the pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles and then the alveoli. This is where gaseous exchange happens. The gases leaving the alveoli's is at a high oxygen concentration and this enters into the capillaries and goes to the muscles. The gases then from the capillaries goes into the alveoli and this is at a high concentrate of carbon dioxide. This then travels back up through the bronchioles, bronchus, trachea, larynx, epiglottis and pharynx. So then when you expire 78% nitrogen, 14% oxygen, 4% carbon dioxide and 1% argon.


Nasal cavity-this bring in air into the nose, where air is warmed and humidified. The hairs in the nose called cilia filters out dust and other particles present in the air and protects the nasal passage and other regions of the respiratory tract.

Pharynx-The pharynx is just a passageway for air to pass through, but it is ringed by tonsils that trap and kill bacteria that come in with the air.

epiglottis- A small flap of cartilage at the back of the tongue, the epiglottis closes the top of the trachea when you swallow to ensure food and drink pass into your stomach and not your lungs.

Larynx-The larynx is a passway. When food is passing through the pharynx, the larynx closes. When we inhale air, it is open and passes through toward the lungs

Trachea- The trachea is also known as windpipe. The trachea filters the air we inhale and branches into the bronchi.

Bronchus-The bronchi are the two air tubes that branch off of from the trachea and carry atmospheric air directly into the lungs.

Brinchioles- these are the parts at the end of each bronchius and they contiune the cycle untill it reaches the final stage in the alveoli and gaseous exchange takes place.

Alveoli-Alveoli is the tiny sac like structure present in the lungs which the gaseous exchange takes place

Lungs-The main organ of the respiratory system is lungs. Lungs are the place in body where oxygen is taken into and carbon dioxide is sent out. The red blood cells present in the blood picks up the oxygen in the lungs and carry and distribute the oxygen to all body cells that need it. The red blood cells donate the oxygen to the cells and picks up the carbon dioxide produced by the cells.

Diaphram-Breathing begins with a dome-shaped muscle located at the bottom of the lungs which is known as diaphragm. When we breathe in the diaphragm contracts and flatten out and pull downward. Due to this movement the space in the lungs increases and pulls air into the lungs. When we breathe out, the diaphragm expands and reduces the amount of space for the lungs and forces air out.