The Bridge To Canada's Future
Unit about Canadian history and our identity
How has Canada's past shaped the identity and future of Canada?
The past is a huge part of our future today, it has helped us make decisions and solve problems. The events in the past have revealed values of our people, beliefs and attitudes. They some resulted in huge consequences, while others have ended up being long-lasting changes in Canada. We have been through wars, treaty makings, and railway building, all of that has made Canada the strong and peaceful country we are today.
How do Canadians express their identity?
Your identity expresses who you are. It is more than how you look, it's also what you like, how you have helped.
The land- Land is a huge influence on our daily lives, it is what are jobs are based on, it is what our sports are based on.
The climate- The climate has an effect on what animals live here, the sports we play, how we travel, what we do in our free time, and how our buildings look.
The culture- Canada is a very diverse country, we have all different cultures and beliefs. Canada welcomes all people no matter what they believe, what they practice or their lifestyles.
Art- Art is a very important aspect in Canadian history, we use art in ceremonials, language, and what has changed in this country. Art expresses how we feel, what we are thinking, and what we believe. Art can be personal or it can be of the land.
Music- Music shows Canada's diverse roots, there is everything from fiddle music to slow songs. Music is what we want people to hear, what we want them to know, music expresses our identity in a way not many people can understand.
Literature- Stories tell what has happened in the past, and what it’s like to live in Canada. They tell stories of newcomers and culture in Canadian history.
Symbols in Canada
How have historical events shaped Canada's identity?
Major events in Canada's past have influenced many things in society today. Things such as war, contracts or agreements, treaties and nations joining together have helped Canada get to where it is today. Major events such as the Royal Proclamation of 1763, the War of 1812, and the Canadian Confederation, the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway and the creation of Medicare have had huge impacts on Canada. Wars have not only destroyed nations but also have brought them together. The Pacific Railway is a railway that went from coast to coast to bring newcomers, supplies and resources across the country. These events are what created the peaceful, safe and helping country that Canada is today.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763- Document that set guidelines for European settlement of Aboriginal territories in what is now North America. The Royal Proclamation was issued by King George III in 1763 to officially claim British territory in North America after Britain won the Seven Year War.
The War of 1812-The War of 1812 was a military conflict between the United States and Great Britain. As a colony of Great Britain, Canada was swept up in the War of 1812 and was invaded a number of times by the Americans. The process of naming the War of 1812 for its year of commencement, even though it lasted into 1814, developed slowly through the 19th century.
The Treaty of Ghent- Signed on December 24, 1814 in the city of Ghent, this treaty was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom.
Confederation and the Canadian Pacific Railway-Canadian Pacific Railway was formed to Canadians from coast to coast. Canada's confederation on July 1, 1867 brought four eastern provinces together to form a new country. As part of the deal, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were promised a railway to link them with the two Central Canadian provinces – Quebec and Ontario. Manitoba joined confederation in 1870. British Columbia, on the west coast, was enticed to join the new confederation in 1871, but only with the promise that a transcontinental railway be built within 10 years to physically link east and west.
The Creation of Medicare-The first government-controlled, universal medical insurance plan in North America. The North American medical establishment and the entire insurance industry were determined to stop Medicare in its tracks. They feared it would become popular and spread, and they were right. Within 10 years all of Canada was covered by a medical insurance system based on the Saskatchewan plan, and no serious politician would openly oppose it.
How does Canada's role in the global community played a part in what Canada is today?
Even after Canada became Canada, we still considered ourselves as British subjects. After taking part in World War I and II, we began to see our country as an independent country. After we became involved with the world wars, we helped create Peacekeeping. We wanted to stop the conflict between everyone and help them realize that we share this land and all belong here.
Canada's role in WW1- Troops from Canada played a prominent part in World War One. Canada was part of the British Empire in 1914. As a result of this, when Great Britain declared war on Germany in August 1914, Canada was automatically at war. Along with other nations in the Empire, such as Australia and India, tens of thousands of Canadians joined the army in the first few months of the war.
Canada's role in WW2- the Second World War was a defining event in Canadian history, transforming a quiet country into a critical player in the 20th century's most important struggle. Canada carried out a vital role in the Battle of the Atlantic and the air war over Germany, and contributed forces to the campaigns of Western Europe beyond what might be expected of a small nation of then only 11 million people.
Peacekeeping- Lester B. Pearson, the Canadian minister of foreign affairs, helped create the United Nations Peacekeeping force. Ever since then Canada has been helping in numerous peacekeeping missions all over the world. In many places all over the world, are having conflicts over religious, tribal or political differences.
How have different worldviews shaped our relationships with the land?
As you probably know, First Nations people were on this land before we were. Their views on land and culture were way different from ours. They believed that all things came from a creator and that what we took, we had to give back something in return. In the process of Treaty making, we had to find a way to fit both of our worldviews in it. We, the people that wanted the land, had found Canada and wanted to use all the resources to trade and sell with other countries. When we signed the treaties we gave the First Nations a right to hunt and fish, what their views on the land brought to us has helped us for many years. If we hadn't taken their views into consideration, there wouldn't be much left of Canada.
Traditional Indigenous Worldviews- Traditional Indigenous worldviews reflect respect for the world, the creator, and all living creatures. A Traditional Indigenous worldview is that if you take something from the land that you have to give something back in return.
Traditional Western European Worldviews- They want ownership. Wanted to own the land, use its resources, and meet the needs of themselves and their families.
The Indigenous and Western European worldviews are very different. Europeans use the land and its resources to support themselves, while Indigenous people believed that we all lived within the circle of life and that we have to be thankful for what we have.
What is the Treaty relationship in Canada?
What were the promises made in Treaties?
There are two different sides in Treaties, which means there are also promises for both sides of the Treaties. On the side of First Nations, they were promised, land for Reserves, education, which would be a school for the kids, the right to hunt and fish, also live off the land, medical care, so that if something were to happen they could get help, agriculture, such as land to farm, and the tools to do it, clothes and supplies, help in times of need and last but not least, the right to practice their culture and believe what they want to believe. The Crown people wanted the land, all the rights to the land, right to the resources and do what they want with the land. The First Nations held their end of the promise, but the things that were promised to them either came in the wrong way or were never given to them.
What were the Expectations and benefits of the treaties?
First Nations- the First Nations expected things like, peace, education, health care, help in times of need, sharing of land, transportation but instead they got residential schools, a medicine chest, food rations, reserves, Indian agent, discounts on trains.
The Crown- the Crown wanted things they couldn't have like, complete control over the land, access to the resources, and First Nations out of the way
What was unfulfilled that was promised in the Treaties?
Some things that were promised to the First Nations, were never given to them. For example, medical care never was given to them, they got no medical care when someone was sick, but the crown did give them a medicine chest, which is just today’s version of a first aid kit. Education was given but in the total wrong way. They thought that taking kids out of their homes and abusing them. They were put in a new place where their culture and language was wrong. They were ashamed of being First Nations. When they would speak their language, they were beaten. When all this finally ended, the kids went home to their families and were speaking a different language, believed different and things and lost all connection with their family or friends. This schooling has brought many miss fortunes to all Canadian's, people ended up drinking and doing drugs to relive the pain of what happened to them, they also ended up beating or abusing their kids, which has also resulted in their kids beating their kids. This cycle has been going on for too long and we aren't putting a stop to it. We are too caught up in our own personal lives. Another unfulfilled promised is land, we have been fighting for land, everyone wants a home and everyone deserves to have one. Have a place to live and settle down. Another promised that was broken is them being able to practice and believe what they want, because of Residential Schools, that promise was majorly broken. Lots of First Nation have not been able to learn about their culture they originated from.
First Nations boy before and after going to residential school.
Treaty Map Of Canada, There Are A Total Of 11 Treaty Lands.
Why are certian lands set aside in Canada?
Crown Land- 89% of land in Canada is Crown Land, this land is owned by the monarch of Canada. Most of this land holds forests, First Nations reserve lands, Canadian military bases, provincial or federal parks, and wilderness areas. There are over 37 million hectares of Crown land in Saskatchewan, a little over half the province. Some areas of Crown land are sold or leased to the use of the public.
Dominion Land Survey-
Settlement of the west- In 1872, the Dominion land acts made rules about how land in the west is to be labeled. The land was divided into sections. Each township was divided into 36 sections:
-2 sections for school use
-2 sections for Hudson's Bay Company
-16 sections to be sold or rented to help pay for railway construction
-16 sections for homesteads
Homesteads- People could acquire a homestead section by paying $10. They were required to build a house and farm, they had to create a successful business within three years. If they couldn't do that than the land went back to the government.
Reserves- 3,377,826 hectares of land in Canada is reserve land. Reserves don't have all traditional territories, which is land that First Nations have used for generations.
Heritage Sites- Canada has many heritage sites due to their significant architecture, culture, beauty, or scientific value. These places tell a story of Canadian history, cultural sites, and cultural heritage properties. A few are open for public view but most of them are privately owned.
Protected Lands- These lands include water and land. These are areas where resource use are restricted in order to preserve natural areas. These areas provide habitats for animals, birds or plants. Some of these lands are not open to the public to preserve ecosystems. Others are used for camping, hiking, canoeing, or swimming.
A person's or family's residence, which comprises the land, house, and outbuildings, and in most states is exempt from forced sale for collection of debt.
Settlement of the west
A Reserve in Canada