IPS Exam Study Guide

all tests and quizes

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Safety Notes

For Every Lab

  • Goggles must be kept OVER YOUR EYES until Mr. Leeds says to put them away **even if you are already finished and cleaned up
  • Report ALL accidents/spills to Mr. Leeds immediately
  • Try your best to use common sense
In case of Emergency


Nurse: ext: 2828

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Safety Equipment in the Room

Chemicals


  • Never taste chemicals (even if they look yummy!)
  • always WAFT liquids to detect odor
  • NEVER WAFT SOLIDS/POWDERS
  • avoid touching chemicals
  • always wash hands with soap and water after lab
  • if chemicals touch skin- flush skin with water for 1 minute and notify Mr. Leeds

glass


  • hot glass and cold glass look the same
  • never use chipped or broken glass
  • tell Mr. Leeds and dispose of broken glass in proper trash
  • never use force to remove or insert glass


Alcohol Burner


  • roll up sleeves, put UP long hair, NOT just pull back (or you cannot do lab)
  • never walk away from a lit burner
  • never point the open end of a hot test tube at yourself or someone else
  • do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated
  • make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done




End of Experiment

  • CLEAN UP AREA AND MATERIALS COMPLETELY! (OR YOU LOSE POINTS)
  • make certain that burner is out if one was used
  • keep goggles on (over eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away


Pre-lab Reaction in a bag

Purpose

To record the observations that occur when multiple chemical substances are combined and to use our observation to understand the reactions of the chemicals.


Chemicals used in the lab

what the lab (reaction of the lab) should look similar to

Scholar Reaction In The Bag Inquiry Demonstration and Lab Activity

experimental errors

hole in the bag: you would not know that a gas was produced


additional information to know

  • solid A and the red liquid (calcium chloride and phenol red) makes a hot reaction which is also known as an exothermic reaction
  • Solid b and a liquid (sodium bicarbonate and phenol red) makes a cold reaction which is also known as an endothermic reaction


Heating Baking Soda Lab

Purpose

to observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated


How the Lab Works

Lab 1.1 Heating Baking Soda

experimental errors

  • hole in the tubing: gas would be released and you would not know that a gas was produced because no water will be pushed out of the bottle
  • stirring rod not cleaned before you begin because it will contaminate the substances


Important Additional Information to Know

  • What do you observe near the top of the test tube? It is fogging and condensing.
  • What is happening in the inverted bottle? The water is leaving the inverted bottle and going into the big plastic container. Basically, the gas enters the inverted bottle forcing the water out.
  • Where do you think the gas comes from? The gas comes from the heated baking soda.
  • Where did the droplets on the test tube come from? When the heated gas is coming from the baking soda, it is very hot and when it touches the cooler surface of the test tube, it turns back into a liquid.
  • Are the two white powders the same substance? No, the heated tube is different because it is not the same color as the unheated test tube which we are 100% sure is simply baking soda and tea. (we know this because nothing was done to the test tube or nothing extra was put into the mixture)
  • Is the amount of baking soda at the bottom of the test tube more or less than the amount of condensation formed at the test tube? Less/equal because the condensation comes from the baking soda and the baking soda is not capable of producing more than itself.
  • the tea in the heated test tube will usually be darker than the tea in the unheated test tube
  • Why do you think baking soda is used in baking? When heated, the baking soda releases a gas that helps dough/batter to rise


terms in the heating baking soda lab

  • control group: unheated test tube
  • experimental group: heated test tube
  • indicator: tea because it indicates/shows that the heated baking soda has changed
  • independent variable: causes a change in the dependent variable- in this lab:the temperature (heat)
  • dependent variable: color of the tea
  • control factors: same type of tea, same amount of baking soda, same amount of tea, same stirring time, same size test tube


Volume

  • unit of measurement cm3 (cubic centimeters)
  • volume= LxWxH
  • standard unit of length is m (meter)


Unit cube

unit cube- a small cube 1 cm on each edge


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Volume of liquids:

  • use a graduated cylinder to measure volume
  • always the intervals or scale units= milliliters (mL) or cm3
  • 1 mL= 1cm3
  • read from bottom of meniscus


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Reading Scales

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  • check that pan is clean and dry before usage
  • always zero balance BEFORE each massing (push all riders to zero and use adjustment knobs if needed)
  • What advantage is there to making graduated cylinders narrow and tall rather than short and wide? The lines are further apart because there is less surface which equals more depth which makes it easier to read


First Test- Chapter one (not including quiz material)

Measuring Volume by Displacement of Water lab

Purpose:

to use the displacement of water method to measure the volume of dry sand that is sand and air space


How the Lab Works

Lab 1-4 Measuring Volume By Displacement

Important Data Tables to know how to do

Volume of dry sand

32 cm3

Volume of water

16 cm3

Volume of sand and water

35.5 cm3

Volume of sand alone

19.5 cm3

Volume of air space

12.5 cm3

Fraction of sand that is air (read to 0.01)

0.39 -12.5/32 (air over dry sand)

Percent of sand that is air

39%


To find volume of sand alone:


volume of sand and water - volume of water = sand alone


To find air space:

volume of dry sand - volume of sand alone = volume of air space


extra question/blue dot questions

why were lab groups instructed to use different amounts of dry sand?


It did not matter how much sand you started with, the amount of air was approximately 40%

experimental errors

  • when pouring the sand into the cylinder with water, the sand sticks to the sides of the wet cylinder
  • if you accidentally pour the water into the sand instead of pouring the sand into the water (water sits on top of sand because the air doesn't allow the water to filter down)


extra information to know

how do you find the volume of a cork stopper?

1. find the volume of a weight (rock, etc.)

2. use displacement of water method with weight and cork

3. subtract the volume of the weight

4. calculate the volume of the cork


SUGAR DISSOLVES IN WATER

Mass notes

SEE PAGE 15 IN TEXTBOOK


  • beqa- ancient standard mass used in egypt (unit of measurement)
  • earliest balance found
  • from egypt
  • approximately 7,000 years old


the standard unit of mass is grams

1 kilogram= 1000 grams

1 kilogram= 2.2 pounds

to find your weight in kilograms- take your weight and divide by 2.2

Sensitivity of a balance

purpose

to determine if you mass the same object repeatedly will the mass remain the same? Also, to determine how different the masses of two object must be for our balance to detect the difference


data tables to know

∆M

0.073


Number of yes’s

3


Sensitivity

0.0243


to get change in mass- ending mass minus initial mass of stopper

then number of yes's

to get sensitivity of the balance- change in mass divided by the number of yes's



experimental errors

  • if there were marks on the graph paper from a pen, pencil or other ink/led, it adds mass to the paper and the calculations will be off
  • if the squares that are cut out are 10 groups of the squares that are between .003 and .007, and they are not exactly the same length and width because the cutting was off, then one of the squares could have a larger mass than another


Additional information to know

  • how can you tell students made an incorrect error when you are given masses of an object? find the range (biggest number minus smallest), and then see if they are in the range of the sensitivity of the balance



sensitivity of the balance post lab

penny facts



  • before 1982- 95% copper and 5% zinc
  • after 1982- 2.5% copper and 97.5% zinc because copper become more expensive so it costed less to do this
  • during 1943- they were made of steel and zinc because copper was needed for shell casings (bullets)
  • a 1943 copper penny has sold for over $82,500!


sensitivity of the balance

  • the lightest mass that you can expect the balance to detect plus or minus the margin of error when you mass something


class sensitivities

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2





Chapter 2

the mass of dissolved salt

purpose

to determine if the mass of salt decreases when salt dissolves in water


Experiment 2.1

experimental errors

1. cleaning out the pan between mass initial and mass final because you will loose mass

2. if the outside of the bottle is wet during the mass initial

3. not drying off the cap because water in mass initial will not be there for mass final

4. remove the cap before mass final because that will cause spillage or leakage

5. not shaking long enough because it will not dissolve

6. cap not on tightly because that will cause spillage or leakage

7. spill salt when pouring into bottle

ALL LEAD TO A DECREASE IN THE MF WHICH IS NOT GOOD


extra info to know

1. why is it always important to subtract the earlier value from the later value when finding the change in mass, instead of always subtracting the smaller value from the larger one?

You will get the wrong symbol which is a different change in mass

2. do you need to know the individual masses of the samples of water and salt to determine the change in mass when the two samples are mixed?

No, because the amount of water should be the same for MI and MF

3. how would you be able to get the dissolved salt back? how do you think its mass would compare with the mass of dry salt you started with?

you would let the water evaporate and the masses would be the same


histograms

  • type of graph (similar to bar graph)
  • graphs used for financial, sports, weather etc.
  • when graphing, find largest and smallest number you must graph first so you know your range


HISTOGRAM RULE-

if data falls on a line, it is graphed in column to the right


the mass of ice and water lab

purpose

to determine if the mass of ice will increase, decrease, or stay the same when it melts


important data tables to know

Mass of bottle/cap (g)

5.360

5.414


Mass of bottle/cap/ice (g)

6.114

5.710


MI of ice (g)

0.754

0.296


Mass of bottle/cap/water (g)

6.081

5.705


MF of water (g)

0.721

0.291


Change in Mass (g)

-0.033

-0.005


TO FIND MASS FINAL OF WATER- BOTTLE/CAP/WATER- BOTTLE/CAP

TO FIND MASS INITIAL OF ICE- BOTTLE/CAP/ICE-BOTTLE/CAP



post lab

condensation on bottle-


  • comes from warm water vapor in the air (humidity) when it touches cool surface of bottle it turns from gas to liquid


experimental errors

  • not wiping off condensation because you'll get a gain in mass
  • bottle is wet during mass initial because you'll loose mass
  • shaking bottle because you will loose mass because water could leak out

2.5 The Mass of Copper and Sulfur lab

purpose

to see if the total mass of copper and sulfur will increase, decrease or stay the same when they are heated together


what the reaction looks like

Copper and sulfur
Lab 2.5: The Mass of Copper and Sulfur

data

Mass of test tube,sheet,band

34.131g

MI of test tube, sheet, band, copper, sulfur unheated

37.131g

MI of copper and sulfur

3g

Mass of test tube, sheet, band, copper, sulfur heated

37.113g

MF of copper and sulfur

2.982g

Change in mass

-0.018g


post lab and extra info to know

  • melting point of copper: 1,100 degrees celsius/ 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit
  • melting point of sulfur: 112 degrees celsius/ 235 degrees fahrenheit
  • yellow smoke- water in sulfur turns to vapor (gas) and rises in test tube (the sulfur has water because it is hydro-tropic)
  • when the yellow smoke cools: sulfur bonds with the copper and forms copper sulfide


Why do we use the rubber sheet instead of maybe a piece of paper?

it is stretchy and the stopper would pop off or the test tube would crack


experimental errors

1. hole in the rubber sheet- the gas escapes

2.the rubber sheet pops off- gas escapes

3. the rubber band isn't on tight enough- gas escapes

ALL LEAD TO GAS ESCAPING AND A LOSS OF MASS


to find the percentage change in mass of the reacting substances- change in mass over mi equals x over 100




2.6 mass of a gas

purpose

to determine if the mass will increase, decrease or stay the same when a solid and liquid produce a gas


data

Bottle/cap/tablet/ water (MI)

26.380 g

28.149 g

28.690 g

Bottle/cap/solution (MF)

26.380 g

28.105 g

28.690 g

Change in Mass

0 g

-0.044 g

0 g

Mass after gas is released

26.250 g

27.959 g

28.659 g

Mass of the gas

0.13 g

0.146 g

0.03 g


way the lab works

Exp. 2.6 The Mass of a Gas

post- lab

experimental errors:


1. water in the pan during the MI- loose mass

2. the cap is not tight or not on quick enough- loosing mass

2.7 conservation of mass notes

closed system- a space where nothing can enter or leave


the law of conservation of mass- in a closed system, mass will remain constant, regardless of hte actions of the processes inside the closed system

Chapter 3

characteristic properties

  • property of an object: does not tell you what the substance is made out of ex. shiny, sharp
  • property of a substance: this helps you to identify what the object is made out of ex. wooden, tar


3.2 mass and volume

purpose: to determine fi the mass of a 1 cm3 object will depend on its shape or the substance it is made of



how the lab works

Lab 3-2 Mass and Volume

data

1st long cylinder

2.651 g

1.01 cm3

2nd long cylinder

2.679 g

0.99 cm3

3rd long cylinder

2.645 g

1.00 cm3

Small aluminum cylinder

2.846 g

1.00 cm3

Brass cylinder

8.471 g

1.00 cm3


post lab

blue dots:


  • can the brass cylinder have the same mass and volume as a piece of aluminum? no, the volume would change because you'd have to change the shape


experimental errors:

  • cylinder could be wet during massing- mass increases because there is extra water
  • water splashes out of your cylinder- volume goes down



mass and volume notes

  • objects that are made of the same substance that have the same volume, will have the same mass regardless of their shape
  • mass of an object will double, if its volume doubles
  • objects that have the same volume but are made of different substances will not have the same mass


3.3 density

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units- g/cm3



3.5 the density of a solid

purpose


to utilize density to determine if 3 metal objects are made of the same substance

post lab

  • the histogram shows that cube 1 and slab are most likely the same substances and cube 2 is a different substance
  • density of water = 1 g/cm3
  • if something has a density below the density of water, it will float
  • the rock is sedimentary. all of the groups have different densities because the rock is formed by many substances being compressed together. different substances = different densities


experimental errors

  1. paint chipped off the object- loose mass
  2. find volume of rock before mass- density increases



3.6 density of a liquid

purpose:


to use density to compose 2 liquids to determine if they are the same substances


post lab

experimental errors


  1. outside of the cylinder is wet- adds mass


liquid a- magnesium sulfate- epsom salt

3.7 density of a gas

purpose


to produce and collect a gas in order to accurately determine the density of the gas


******scientific notation - left- positive; right- negative

Density of a Gas.WMV

post lab

  • Why is it important to hold your hand over the mouth of the bottle wile removing it from the water? the water will leave the bottle because it has a greater density than air

  • gas from the lab was carbon dioxide which has a density of 1.8 x 10-3 g/cm3
  • does the density of a gas depend on how much gas you collect? No, density depends on the substance
  • what happens if the gas you collected dissolves in your water? the volume goes down and density goes up (tubing must be at top of the bottle due to gas dissolving)
  • 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams
  • 1 meter= 100 cm

experimental errors

  1. if you don't put foil on during the mf- mf goes down and change in mass becomes too big and density goes up
  2. if there's an air bubble- volume goes down and density goes up




CHAPTER ONE TEST

Part A: Calculations

1) In a rectangular box the following the measurements were found: six cubes fit exactly along one edge, and five cubes fit exactly along another edge. However, after seven horizontal layers had been stacked in the box, a space at the top was left unfilled.


- If the height of the space was half the length of an edge of a unit cube, what was the volume of the box?
answer- 6 x 5 x 7.5= 225 cm3

why: L x W x H (7.5 because the length of a unit cube is 1 cm and half of that is 0.5. You had to add 0.5 to the height because the space at the top was half the length of an edge of a unit cube.)


-if the height of the space was 0.47 of the length of an edge of a unit cube, what was the volume of the box?

answer- 6 x 5 x 7.47= 224.1 cm3

why- L x W x H (7.47 because the height of the missing space was 0.47 of the length

of an edge of a unit cube so you had to add that to the height given)


2. what is the mass of an iron bar that is 2 cm x 4 cm x 11 cm (1 cm3 of iron has a mass of 7.8g)

answer- 2 x 4 x 11 x 7.8= 686.4 g


3. a volume of 87 cm3 of dry sand is added to 46 cm3 for a total volume of 104 cm3.


volume of dry sand- 87 cm3

volume of water- 46 cm3

volume of sand and water- 104 cm3

volume of sand alone- 58 cm3 (sand and water minus water)

volume of air space- 29 cm3 (dry sand minus sand alone)

% of dry sand that is sand- 67%

% of dry sand that is air space- 34%


what is the volume of water that fills the air spaces in the dry sand?

answer- 29 cm3

why- the answer is volume of air space


what is the volume of water that does not fill the air spaces in the sand?

answer- 17 cm3

why- water minus air


4. to stay physically fit, Mr. Leeds is constantly training. He weighs 178 lbs. what is his weight in kilograms?

answer- 81 kilograms

why- 178 divided by 2.2 because 1 kilogram equals 2.2 pounds


use the following data to find the sensitivity of the balance:


initial mass of stopper- 14.30 g

group 1- change- mass 14.32

group 2- change- mass 14.33

group 3- change- mass 14.34

group 4- no change- mass 14.34

group 5- change- mass 14.35

group 6- no change- mass 14. 35

group 7- change- mass 14.36

group 8- no change- mass 14.36

group 9- no change- mass 14.36

group 10- change- mass 14.39


sensitivity of the balance= 0.02 g

why- change in mass: 0.09 (final minus initial)

number of yes': 6

sensitivity: 0.015


**** How do you know when someone has made a mistake in their massing when seeing a data table?

answer- you find the range and see if it is near the number of the sensitivity of the balance.




part B: Lab experiments


During the hating baking soda lab, a group does not realize that they have a hole in their rubber tubing. How will this affect their understanding of the lab?


The group will not realize that a gas was produced by the baking soda because it will escape through the hole. Also, the gas that does reach the inverted bottle, will not be enough to push out the water form the bottle making it hard to testify that a gas was produced.


During the Reaction in a bag experiment, a lab group does not realize that there is a hole in their zip lock bag. how will this affect their understanding of the lab?

The group will not realize that a gas may have been produced from their mixture with the substances because it will escape through the hole.


For the Measuring Volume by displacement of water lab Mr. leeds assigned lab groups different amounts of dry sand to begin the lab. Why did he do this?

He assigned different amounts of dry sand to show that it didn't matter how much sand you started with because the percent of dry sand that is air space will be approximately 40%



Part C: Measurement

Here are the ingredients in Mr. Leeds' famous pumpkin bread. next to each ingredient identify which are measured by mass, volume, or other means.


  • 3 cups flour- volume
  • 1 tablespoon baking powder- volume
  • 1 1 pound can of pumpkin- mass
  • 1/2 teaspoon vanilla- volume
  • cinnamon to taste- other
  • 1/2 cup milk- volume


for the following objets tell whether you would use a volume measurement, mass measurement, or count to describe the capacity of the object.

  • auditorium- count
  • bridge- mass
  • saucepan- volume
  • water tank- volume


(for next measuring problems see box questions in lab notebook)

Part D: Critical Thinking

In the sensitivity of a balance lab, you were instructed to add 10 groups of squares with a mass between .003g and .007g to an already massed stopper. why did they choose this range of mass for your 10 groups of squares and not a smaller range' for example: .001g and .003g? how would this have changed your lab?

Those numbers were chosen because you could expect to actually see a change in the mass when gradually adding on more squares. Also, 0.01-0.02g is about the sensitivity of the balance so it probably would detect the mass, but maybe not each time. The lightness of it might also cause more margin for error.

CHAPTER TWO TEST

Part I: Laboratory Experiments

1. describe a possible error discussed in class, which could lead to a loss in mass during the mass of a gas lab. be sure to explain why this error would cause a loss in mass


Error- if the cap is not on tight enough or quick enough there will be a loss in mass.

Explanation-There will be a lose in mass because the gas could escape and we wouldn't know because gas is invisible


2. Describe a possible error discussed in class, which would lead to a loss in mass during the mass of copper and sulfur lab. be sure to explain why this error would cause a loss in mass.

error- if the sheet has a hole there will be a loss in mass

explanation- the gas that is created could escape and therefore wouldn't be there in the mass after the heating.


3. During an experiment of ice and water a gain in mass is noted by a lab group. Give a possible error, discussed in class, as to how this gain in mass could have occurred. be sure to explain why this error would cause a gain in mass.

Error: if there is condensation on the outside of the bottle there will be a gain in mass

Explanation: the condensation wasn't there during the MI, so if it is there during the MF there will be a gain in mass because the condensation doesn't come from the ice. The condensation comes from warm water vapor in the air that touches the cooler surface of the bottle and turns form a gas to a liquid.

Part II: Analysis

During the ice and water lab a lab group forgot to put the cap on their bottle. By the time they realized their mistake some condensation had already formed on the outside and inside of the bottle. they should:

A) put the cap on, wipe off the condensation on the outside and continue

B)not worry because the condensation on the outside and inside should balance out

C) Start the lab over

D) wipe off equal amounts of condensation inside and outside, put on cap and continue


In all four experiments from chapter 2 the common theme involved investigating changes in mass of different states of matter. You now know that in all the labs there should be no change in mass because:

A)in all 4 labs everyone in class calculated no change in mass

B) all the labs followed einstein's theory of relativity

C) Newton's laws of motion

D) law of conservation of mass


You are working in a class with no air conditioning, it is 90 degrees fahrenheit. your lab is to take the mass of water (that is 65 degrees fahrenheit ) in a small plastic bottle with a cap on, then place the bottle in a walk-in freezer allowing the liquid to solidify, then re-mass the bottle while in the freezer. What is a possible error you should be aware of:

A) condensation may form on the inside of the bottle during the Mi and then freeze

B) the water could start boiling and push the cap off

C) condensation may form on the outside of the bottle during the Mi and then freeze

D) all of the above


A lab group dissolves 2g of slat into 8 cm3 of water in a beaker with no cover. After a few days all of the water has evaporated. What will remain in their beaker?

A) 2g of salt

B) 4 cm3 of water

C) 1g of salt

D) none of the above

Part III: Calculation

*****How do you find the percentage change in mass of the a reacting substance?

change in mass over M i= x over 100


CHAPTER THREE TEST 3.1-3.8

Part B: Laboratory Experiments

In order to calculate density, we found both the mass and volume of the liquid in the graduated cylinder because:


A) we didn't have enough small beakers

B) it is the most accurate method

C) we did not have to transfer liquid

D) all of the above

E) Both B & C

F) none of the above


When finding the density of a liquid the most accurate thing to do is:

A) find the volume first and then pour it into a beaker for massing

B) Find the mass first and then pour it into a graduated cylinder

C) either A or B

D) none of the above


during the density of a gas lab the rubber tubing is incorrectly inserted near the bottom (mouth) of the bottle. This will cause:

A) more water to be pushed out of the bottle

B) less gas to collect in the bottle

C) more water to fill up the test tube

D) less gas will leave the test tube


if the error in #3 is made it will have the following affect:

A) volume increases, density decreases

B) mass increases, density increases

C) volume decreases, density increases

D) mass decreases, density decreases


when calculating the density of a rock (an irregular shape) it would be an experimental error to

A) mass the rock prior to finding its volume

B) waft the rock

C) find the volume prior to massing

D) none of the above


when the alka seltzer tablet is mixed with water, sodium bicarbonate within the tablet releases

A) hydrogen

B) nitrous oxide

C) baking soda

D) carbon dioxide


in the density of a gas lab a student forgets to include the foil for the Mf, the result

is:

A) mass of gas increases, density increases

B) mass of gas increases, density decreases

C) mass of gas decreases, density increases

D) mass of gas decreases, density decreases


Epsom salt is the marketing name for which chemical compound:

Magnesium sulfate

CHAPTER 3 QUIZ

questions I got wrong

identify a possible experimental error in the density of solids lab that would affect a group's measured mass of the rock sample

If a group finds the volume before the mass the rock is wet.


What did the histogram make you aware of about the three objects in the density of solid lab?

cube 1 and slab had similar densities and cube 2 was a different substance


during the density of a gas lab the rubber tubing is incorrectly inserted near the bottom (mouth) of the bottle. This will cause:

the mass would increase. therefore, the mass goes up and so does the density