How To Build a Underwater Tunnels?

The history, the methods, and future plans

History of Underwater Tunnels

People have tried to build/dig underwater tunnels for thousands of years.One of the first underwater tunnels, was built some time between 2180 BC and 2160 BC, By the Babylonians to make a pedestrian and Chariot passage between the royal palace and temple. In the early days when people tried to build tunnels under rivers they died trying. Early attempts on tunneling included digging with your hands, with large drills,or using explosives. as you can tell tunnel construction has evolved over the years.
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Methods of building underwater tunnels

The oldest method for building tunnels is the tunnel shield which cost a fraction of the cost as a (TBM). The invention of the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) was because of all the toxic fumes, rock slides, and other dangerous things. Another method for building tunnels the immersed tube method. A future underwater tunnel building method would be Submerged Floating Tunnel.
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Future Plans for Underwater Tunnels

China is planning to build a underwater high-speed rail tunnel connecting Dailan to Shandong province city of Yantai. To take a ferry this trip would take eight hours, with this plan the trip would only take a mere 40 minutes. Covering more than 100KM this will become the world's longest underwater tunnel. This plan will cost 200 billion yuan (32 billion dollars) and take ten years to build.
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Vocabulary words

Experimental- Nature of an experiment

Humongous- Extremely large

Commerce-Social relations

Ultrasonic-Utilizing ultrasound

Excavate- To make a hole by removing the inside