Language Arts

6th grade

Chapter 1:The Sentence;Subject, Predicate;Kinds of Sentances

Sentence or Sentence Fragment

A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb and that expresses a complete thought.

I rode on an elephant !

The Subject

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about.

My best friend sits next to me in science class.

The Predicate

The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject.

The tooth with a point is called a canine.

Compound Subject and Compound Verb Compound Subject

A compound subject consists of two or more subject that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb.

Minneapolis and St. Paul are the twin cities.

Kinds of Sentances

A declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period.

An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentances end with a period.

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark.

An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or expresses strong feeling and ends with an exclamatory point.

What a difficult assignment that was!

Chapter 2: Parts of Speech; Noun, Pronoun, Adjective

The Noun

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, place, thing, or idea.

The White House is very big.

The Pronoun

A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns.

My aunt sold her car.

The Adjective

An adjective is a word that is used to modify a noun or pronoun.

The dog is gentle.

Chapter 3:Parts of Speech Overview; Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, Interjection

The Verb

A verb is a word that expresses action or a state of being.

We went to Boston this April.

The Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Reporters quickly gather the news.

The Preposition

A preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and another word in the sentence.

Your math book is underneath your coat, Allen.

The Conjunction

A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups.

The zebra turned to the watering hole, for it was getting thirsty.

The Interjection

An interjection is a word that expresses emotion.

Aha! I knew you were hiding there.

Chapter 4 :The Phrase and the Clause;Prepositional Phrases, Independent Clause, Sentence Structure

Prepositional Phrases

A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any modifiers of that object.

The tree in front of our window blocks our view.

Adjective Phrase

A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or pronoun is called an adjective phrase.

Chunks of ice fell from the skyscraper.

Adverb Phrase

A prepositional phrase that is used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adverb phrase.

The statue stands right next to a big oak tree.

The Clause

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.

She has improved a great deal.

Independent Clauses

An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence.

Her team won yesterday's game.

Subordinate Clauses

A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.

We all enjoyed the dinner that dad cooked for us.

Adjective Clauses

An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.

A cat that has white fur.

Adverb Clauses

An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, and adjective, or an adverb.

Since the toddler was shy, she hid behind her mother.

Sentence Structure Simple Sentences

A simple sentence has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses.

My mother belongs to the Friends of the Library.

Compound Sentences

A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses, usually joined by a comma and a connecting word.

I forgot my lunch, but Dad ran to the bus with it.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.

before Chen planted his garden, he made a sketch of the layout.

Compound-Complex Sentences

A sentence with two or more independent clauses and at least on subordinate clause is a compound-complex sentence.

I picked up the branches that had fallen during the storm, and Rosa mowed the grass.

Chapter 5:Complements;Direct and Indirect Objects, Subject Complements

Recognizing Complements

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb.

My aunt found a wallet.

Objects of Verbs

Direct objects and indirect objects complete the meaning of transitive verbs.

My brother bought a model.

Direct Objects

A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb.

Jan called somebody for an assignment

Indirect Objects

An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or a word group that usually comes between the verb and the direst object.

I gave that problem some thought.

Subject Complements

A subject complement is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies or describes the subject.

The airport appears very busy.

Predicate Nominative

A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it.

Seaweed is algae, as I remember.

Predicate Adjectives

A predicate adjective is an adjective that is in the predicate and that describes the subject.

I believe that Jacob is a Nigerian.

Chapter 6: Agreement;Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent

Agreement of Subject Verb

A verb should agree in number with its subject.

The ocean roars in the distance.

Problems in Agreement Phrases Between Subject and Verb

The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject.

Some of the oranges are gone.

Indefinite Pronouns

The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something.

One of the stars is from my home town.

Compound Subjects

Subjects joined by and generally take a plural verb.

Red and blue are the school's colors.

Subject After the Verb

When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure that the verb agrees with it.

Are the birds in the nest?

The Contractions Don't and Doesn't

The word don't is the contraction of do not. Use don't with all plural subjects and with the pronouns I and You.

I don't have my keys.

Agreement of Pronoun and Antecedent

A pronoun should agree in gender with its antecedent.

Rosa said she lost her glasses.

Chapter 7:Using Verbs Correctly;Principal Parts, Regular and Irregular Verbs, Tense

Principal Parts of Verbs

The four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle.

She wears a blue uniform.

Regular Verbs

A regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

cause causing caused

Irregular Verbs

An irregular verb forms its past and past participle in some other way than by adding -d or -ed to the base form.

become becoming became have become

Consistency of Tense

Do not change needlessly from one tense to another.

The cat jumped onto the counter and stole the sandwich.

Chapter 8: Using Pronouns Correctly; Subject and Object Forms

The Subject Form

Use the subject form for a pronoun that is the subject of a verb.

I walked to school.

Pronoun as Predicate Nominatives

Use the subject form for a pronoun that is a predicate nominative.

The next singer is she.

The Object Form

Use the object form for a pronoun that is the direct object of a verb.

The teacher thanked me for cleaning the chalk board.

Pronoun as Indirect Object

Use the object form for a pronoun that is the indirect object of a verb.

Scott handed me a note.

Pronoun as Object of a Preposition

Use the object form for a pronoun that is the object of a preposition.

above me

Chapter 9: Using Modifiers Correctly; Comparison and Placement

One Word Modifiers

Adjectives make the meanings of nouns and pronouns more specific.

That one is my favorite.


Adverbs make the meanings of verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs more specific.

The car backfired loudly.

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs

The three degrees of comparison of modifiers are the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.

Shawn runs quickly.

Special Problems in Using Modifiers

The modifiers good and well have different uses.

the farmers had a good crop this year.

Placement of Modifiers

Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.

the singer from Brazil gave a radio interview for her fans.